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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Occupational stress is a growing problem in present-day organizations, it is an incessant issue crossways over the occupations, and it impacts directly on the execution of work. The problem of occupational stress is predominantly relevant for evolving nations and regions undergoing enormous economic development and social transformation (Leka and Jain, 2010). It does not have emotional impact on work life only, but has far reached impact on worker’s family life as well. Job stress is a chronic disease which have negative effects on an individual’s performance. Job stress is unswervingly related to performance, the higher the rate of job stress, the lower the job motivates a worker to performance it. Nevertheless, work is inevitable in today’s life and it forms the focal point of almost all human life (Kortum, 2014).
The performance of employees, as well as managers, determines to a large extent, the quality of employee as expressed by Hellriegel and Slocum (2007) that low job motivation can bring about costly turnover, tardiness, truancy and even poor intellectual wellbeing. This is further argued by Kreisman (2002) that the most valuable and volatile asset of any organisation is a well-motivated and a stable workforce, competent, dedicated and furthermore, hard-working and persistent personnel. Lawler (2003) uttered that in the twenty-first century, treating people right is not an alternative but an obligation.
The main purpose of this study is to analyse the phenomenon of occupational stress and employee motivation in the mining industry of Zimbabwe having a vivid look into Ayrshire Mine in the year 2017. This study is worthy pursuing because occupational stress is an area which is no doubt being overlooked by a significant number of associations particularly mining, yet it has a great negative impact to employee motivation. The present study addresses the specific relation of the two variables of job related stress and motivation since these constructs have not been comprehensively explored in the mining sector of Zimbabwe. This also might be educational on upgrading execution of task and employee performance as well. This is also related to the improving of job contentment by reducing occupational stress.
1.1 BACKGROUND
Occupational stress has been defined by Cox et al (2003) as the response people may have when presented with work difficulties and pressures that are not corresponding to their acquaintance and abilities and which contest their aptitude to cope. Stress is habitually recognized as the most common ailment of the modern age. It is a pattern of undesirable physiological condition and emotional responses that occur in an individual. When frazzled, individuals feels that their well-┬Čbeing is susceptible and at the same time incapable to handle it (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984; Hill, 2001). Occupational strain has its umbilical string in the middle of the nineteenth century where Friedrich Engels first pronounced in detail the physical and emotional health glitches suffered by workers in many trades (Barling and Griffiths, 2011). With time through the cross insemination of ideas from continent to continent, occupational stress became broadly recognized mainly in the industrialised nations.
Several hypotheses have been brought forward by a lot of researchers and scholars in an effort to try and explicate how stress rises or how it brings about attrition of motivation among employees. A job demand-control model by Karasek (1979), specifies that, products of stress such as tension radiated from the consequences of extraordinary job challenges, low social backing and low self-governance. Job characteristics framework, another model by Hackman and Oldham, (1980) stipulates that, employee motivation is determined by work features such as expertise diversity, task uniqueness, task importance, self-governance, and feedback. The theory states that motivation and job contentment relies upon the fit between the employee’s capabilities or essentials and the job and the organizational features. Lazarus and Folkman (1984) presented the transactional theory of psychological stress and coping, it is one of the most prominent and standout theory amongst the major conspicuous theories in the field of stress (Babatunde, 2013). This theory suggests that a discrepancy of greater environmental demands than means to manage with these demands produces strain. These are some of the well-known models which have picked up strength through a considerable length of time in regulating stress research and practice, notwithstanding their difference in popularity and empirical backing.
A quick evolving worldwide scene is increasing the pressure of workforce to perform maximum output and enhance competitiveness. Indeed, to perform exceptional on their jobs, there is a prerequisite for workers to perform multiple tasks in the workplace to keep up-to-date of fluctuating technologies (Cascio, 1995; Quick, 1997). The ultimate outcomes of this pressure have been found to be one of the essential elements prompting job stress in their work (Cahn et al., 2000). An investigation in UK showed that, a larger part of the labour force were unhappy with the existing culture, where they are mandated to work prolonged working hours and cope with large workloads while simultaneously meeting production targets and deadlines (Townley, 2000).
Research by Karasek and Colleagues (2002) discovered that the most stressful jobs are those that allow for very little or next to no decision making, that places a high mental request on the worker. A case in point of psychological demand is having an immense amount of work. Their study have highlighted the detrimental consequences of high workloads or work overload. Al-Aameri (2003) has revealed in his investigations that one of the six causes of occupational stress is the pressure emanating from workload. In another study by Kaplan (1991), quantified that organizational influences such as amount of work and operational condition were adversely interrelated with job satisfaction.
Latest study by Brazier cited by Niebuhr (2017), expounds that job stress is a major deal when it comes to unfulfilled objectives and non-existence of ambition in people’s lives. He said that, uncomplimentary stress have demonstrated a noteworthy antagonistic effects on the psyche and motivation of employees. Scientists now accepted the truth that will is finite, its supply can become shattered at the hands of overabundance pressure, most remarkably, uncomplimentary stress. In somewhat circumstances an individual is craving to excel, if an individual is compelled to deal with increasing stress, that stress can be the foundation of the flickering of employee motivation or else extinguish completely.
Numerous studies have attempted to determine the linkage between occupational stress and employee motivation. Work related stress and employee motivation are some of the burning centres in human resource management researches. As stated by Stamps ; Piedmonte (1986), job satisfaction has been establish to have a noteworthy relationship with work related stress. One study by general practitioners in England acknowledged four occupational stressors which were foretelling of job displeasure (Cooper, 1989). Studies of Landsbergis (1988) and Terry (1993) exhibited that high levels of work related stress are connected with low levels of job inspiration.
There has been an array of diverse methodologies which were utilized in an effort to motivate employees. According to Mukhalipi (2014), it took more than a great employer to construct and manage work in a manner which withholds common risk factors for stress and thwarts predictable glitches as much as possible. This will permit workforces to be more productive at all times as they will feel esteemed and cared for. There are ultimately three approaches for claiming the motivation of employees. Mukhalipi (2014), suggested that the main path is primary prevention, where stress is lessened through ergonomics, work and natural design, organizational and administration improvement.
The second technique of inspiring employees is through secondary inhibition, where you lessens stress through worker education and training. Lastly, is the tertiary prevention technique, where the impact of stress is diminished by creating a more considerate and responsive management structures (Kendall, 2000). Occupational stress has been shown to have an impeding implications on motivation of employees and has a damaging impact on workplace output and profits as well. Nguwi (2014) put forward that, about 40% to 45% of Zimbabweans suffered and are suffering from occupational stress which is arithmetically way higher than that of the mediocre of developed countries which is ranging between 17% and 26%. The thrust of this research is to explore the effects of occupational stress on employee motivation by examining different separate areas, describe common patterns of stress experienced by workers at Ayrshire Mine and also investigate the main issues of concern.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
High levels of work related stress are some of the key factors which can obstruct an organization’s achievement of long-term improvement and also, the employees’ sense of motivation in the workplace. One impediment in understanding how the high pressure and occupational stress impacts the individuals within the mining industry, Ayrshire Mine to be precise, is the insufficiency of empirical research in the area. The reason for this exploration is to have an understanding on the issue of occupational stress among employees at Ayrshire Mine. The study aims to find out the main effects of occupational stress on employee motivation by scrutinising different areas including employee’s role in the organization, workload, work demand, and organizational support.
Furthermore, the study aims to describe common patterns of experiences of people working at the company and explore the main issues of concern. Despite the extreme negative effects of occupational stress on the human body and work performance, many organizations, Ayrshire Mine not being an exception has not put in any concrete measure to address these stress related conditions that are negatively affecting productivity. It is in the light of these problems that this research seeks to bring to the forefront the implication of occupational stress on the overall motivation of employees at the workplace.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
General objective
To assess occupational stress and its influence on employee motivation giving a careful consideration to workers at Ayrshire Mine.
Specific objectives
1. To identify the springs of occupational stress which affect employee motivation.
2. To examine the effects of job stress on employees in the execution of their work.
3. To analyse the rapport between perceived levels of stress and individual differences.
4. To scrutinise the magnitude of occupational stress on employee motivation.
5. To examine coping methodologies embraced to motivate employees at the mine.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the sources of occupational stress which affect employee motivation?
2. How does these effects disrupt employees in accomplishing their tasks?
3. Analyse how perceived levels of stress are related to individual differences?
4. Which factor contribute more to low motivation among staff of Ayrshire Mine?
5. Are there any strategies which can be embraced to heighten the motivation of employees?
1.5 AIM OF THE STUDY
Occupational stress is one of the most persistent problems being faced by many organization. Stress Management is vital in necessitating the healthy functioning of organizations. It seeks to enhance employee motivation. Through proper management one can clearly focus on tasks by having an enriched immune system and improved cardiovascular co-ordination. Job stress prompts absenteeism, diminishes employee’s effectiveness and increased turnover. For the affluence of an organization, it is a prerequisite that its employees work in a stress free environment. In Zimbabwe, occupational stress is not being appropriately provided with the finest attention it deserves and so, very little has been done in as far as assessing the role of stress with respect to job performance within organizations.
This study is crucial, as healthy, motivated and less stressed employees are more dedicated towards offering their services and performing their obligations. It is in the light of this that this study is considered significant, as it will:
? Fashion conscious mindful thoughts among managers on the necessity to deliver a desirable platform to help and thwart manifestation of occupational stress.
? Help human resources practitioners to have an exceptional understanding on issues of motivation and employee performance.
? The study has the possibility to fuel an interest among scholars and students, study the effects of stress among workers in Zimbabwe.
1.6 LIMITATIONS
In carrying out the investigation the researcher might encounter the following impediments:
There might be unattainability of respondents due to other work commitments. The researcher is a full time student which means the research will be carried out as a part time, this may limit the researcher to cover broader range. The respondents might be scared to react to questionnaires for a sum of ethical reasons, having this in thoughts the researcher will use numerous strategies to alleviate the overhead possible challenges. Of great apprehension are ethical matters and also the design of the research instruments so that they are properly interpreted by the respondents. The investigator will conduct a pilot study to be assured that the respondents adequately understand the requirements of the research and lastly the investigator will underscore to the respondents that the whole thing will be published namelessly.
1.7 DELIMITATIONS
The scope of the study is to scrutinise stress levels perceived by employees at Ayrshire mine, and to explore their effects on employee motivation. The research will correspondingly examine if there is a possible correlation between the organizational support and the level of motivation. The research is limited to a single case study, which is carried out at Ayrshire Mine, a mining company in Zimbabwe.
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS
In carrying out the study, researcher presumes that the sample will be demonstrative of the whole population. More so, the researcher assumes that he will be given entree to all pertinent information and that all questionnaires will be returned back to the research, also researcher will assume that the respondents will be complaisant.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Stress – There is no autonomous agreement over the meaning of stress and so, countless scholars have come up with numerous definitions of stress to suit diverse situations. For a finer understanding of the definition of occupational stress, the maternal definition of stress was swotted. Shirom (1982), defined stress as a person’s perception that stressors surpass his or her aptitudes and resources, prompting to undesirable outcomes. Stress is also defined in connection to the actual demands which are placed on humans, referred to as stressors.
Occupational stress – Explicitly, occupational stress has been defined by Rohan (2003), as anything concerning the working atmosphere or nature of work itself which causes an individual perceived stress. Leka (2003), complementarily, stretched out the definition of job stress as the reaction people may have when presented with work demands and pressures which are not corresponding to their capabilities and acquaintance, which challenges their capacity to cope.
Employee – Hornby (2010), characterised an employee as an individual who is remunerated to work for somebody. The International Labour Organization further elaborated the definition by uttering that employees are persons who engages to work for a public or private establishment and get remuneration in form of wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rate, and or pay in kind. It is essential to have an understanding that an employee is one who under contract of employment is engaged by an employer in either a private or public entity, with a reward at the end of the work.
Motivation – There have been several definitions of motivation crossways through different disciplines in the academia stretching from the field of management, psychology to allied sciences. As stated by Page (2008), motivation is defined as the process that accounts for an individual’s passion, path and persistence of efforts towards accomplishing an objective. Robbins (2005), defined motivation as the enthusiasm to exert high levels of determination towards organisational objectives, habituated by the effort’s capability to satisfy some individual desires.
1.10 DISSERTATION OUTLINE
1.11 CONCLUDING REMARKS
In a basic manner, the first chapter is a preliminary chapter which conveys the objectives, background, and problem statement, research questions of the research on occupational stress influence on employee motivation. Limitations and delimitations of the research are also underlined in the first chapter. With a smooth shift from the first chapter, we move into the second chapter which encompasses the literature review of the research. The second chapter provides the ample review of the literature related to the problem which is being investigated. The chapter should contain the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and the historical overview of the problem, contemporary trends related to the problem and important research data published about the problem.