5) The translation of political literature can be considered in two ways, as a field of linguistic activity and as a separate field in science. As a field of linguistic activity translation of political literature represents one of the types of special translations possessing as objects of its activity different materials of political character. The translation of political language comes out into a special field of study due to its specific features of written and verbal speech on political topics, which is specified by its essential character and the knowledge of this science.
6) The main peculiarity of political discourse is that it contains mostly those text types which have a manipulative intention as a prevailing one. Among the political text types of a manipulative kind we can see political interviews, slogans, announcements, articles in special party papers and certain messages in electronic mass media. Nevertheless, the most remarkable type of manipulative messages which function within political discourse is the text type of pre-election propaganda speeches. As a rule, the texts of such speeches have some structural and intentional characteristic features which make it possible to consider these speeches as a definite text type. All speeches contain special etiquette phrases greetings and words of appreciation, they have prognostic character, the main communicative intention of such speeches is that of promise. In addition to that, pre-election propaganda speeches have one more interesting peculiarity, the collective recipient of the speech is fully or partly aware of the manipulative character of the message. In other words, recipients guess or understand which effect is planned to be achieved by the producers of pre-election propaganda speeches before the election. One of the most frequently used rhetorical devices is the use of first-person plural widely used in pre-election speeches. Political speeches, especially those delivered at party conventions or other collections of listeners who share the platform or party of the speaker, are generally delivered in the first-person plural, rather than singular.
7) The research we have tried to carry out shows that the speeches of American and British politicians are characterized by a great number of devices which make the speech sound more persuasive and expressive. The research shows that mostly the following stylistic devices are used in political speeches, parallel constructions, repetition, enumeration, antithesis, gradation, polysyndeton, asyndeton, inversion, and rhetorical question.
8) It is customary in American political discourse to employ biblical language, which is an inherent part of American public speaking. When speaking of history of American politics it is easy to digress into the field of religion. Christianity has a given place as the normative faith in many politicians’ speeches, although some politicians never forget to mention that U.S.A. is a nation of many different religions leaving out some minorities, while including others. Nearly all the speeches of American presidents show that their language can easily be associated with the Christian faith. Other than that, the references to God, God’s will and God’s promises, cannot exclusively be tied to Christianity, rather these references are applicable to various faiths that recognize the existence of one God. Nearly all American presidents end their speeches with the words “God bless America”.
9) The Political History of Great Britain shows that Tony Blair’s attempt to end his speech, an address to the nation with “God bless Britain” was not welcomed warmly, especially by the representatives of Mass Media. However, the former Prime Minister said his suggestion provoked such strong concern from civil servants that he was forced to drop the idea. Mr Blair said he had intended to echo the traditional closing remark of Presidents in the United States, who typically sign-off television broadcasts by saying, “God Bless America”.