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5854535-498764USE OF RECYCLED PLASTICS IN CONCRETE MIXTURE AS AN AGGREGATE ____________________ A Research Proposal Presented to the Senior High School Basic Education Department Holy Name UniversityCity of Tagbilaran ____________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for Research Project ____________________ By Atup

5854535-498764USE OF RECYCLED PLASTICS IN CONCRETE MIXTURE AS AN AGGREGATE
____________________
A Research Proposal
Presented to the
Senior High School
Basic Education Department
Holy Name UniversityCity of Tagbilaran
____________________
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirement for
Research Project
____________________
By
Atup,Jose John Ariel G.

Cadayday,Christian Joseph M.

Castro,Neil Franco O.

Cuadra,Semkiz C.

Daguplo,Cyrilpple T.

Daño,Angelo G.

Pido,Francis Ed J.

Ramos,Raylanz Zay L.

Timbal,Arexcin Ray C.October 2018
APPROVAL SHEET
In partial fulfillment of the requirement for Research Project, this research proposal entitled “Use of Recycled Plastics in Concrete Mixture as an Aggregate”, has been prepared and submitted by:
Atup,Jose John Ariel G.

Cadayday,Christian Joseph M.

Castro,Neil Franco O.

Cuadra,Semkiz C.

Daguplo,Cyrilpple T.

Daño,Angelo G.

Pido,Francis Ed J.

Ramos,Raylanz Zay L.

Timbal,Arexcin Ray C.Will be examined for acceptance and approval for proposal hearing.RESEARCH COMMITTEE
MR. ACE P. UY
Research Project Teacher
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
With grateful recognition and heartfelt appreciation, the researchers of this study, would like to express our gratitude to the following people who, in one way or another, have contributed and supported for the success of our research study.

Mr. Ace P. Uy, our Research Project teacher, for his time, effort and above all patience, in imparting and sharing his knowledge in the conduct of a quantitative research and also for not giving up on us throughout this journey.

Our beloved parents, who have given us, full guidance and support, both financial and emotional, which became great contributions for the completion of this work.

Our fellow researchers, who intensively spent their time and effort intended for the success of this study and for their perseverance to complete this piece of work.

Above all, our Almighty Father, for giving us enough strength and clear mind. For His grace and enlightenment which sustained us throughout the conduct of this study.

The Researchers
DEDICATION
With the deepest devotion and genuine love, we, the researchers humbly dedicate this piece of work to the following people who serve as our inspiration
To the Almighty God,
for his countless blessings and enlightenment.

To our parents,
for their unending support, monetary and morally.

To friends and loved ones,
for their constructive criticism.

To our adviser,
for their inspiring knowledge and expertise in the research.

5521787-617542TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
APPROVAL SHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiDEDICATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivTABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vLIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiCHAPTER PAGE
I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
INTRODUCTION
Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Theoretical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Schematic Diagram of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Related Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Related Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
THE PROBLEM
5485130-845185Statement of the Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Statement of the Null Hypothesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Significance of the Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Scope and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Research Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Research Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Research Materials and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Research Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Statistical Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
DEFINITION OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1Schematic Diagram of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
INTRODUCTION
Rationale
The environment is the source of everyone’s needs. It is where one gets food, materials and shelter. It is from the environment that people obtain the air they breathe. However, this environment has been destroyed since then and until now. One of the environmental concerns around the world is the large number of plastic wastes deposited in domestic wastes and landfills.

The use of plastic has been on the rise in recent years. The world’s annual consumption of plastic materials has increased from around 5 million tons in the 1950’s to nearly 100 million tons in recent years (Gourmelon, 2015). Among these wastes, a small part is being recycled, but the majority of these, though recyclable, remain untouched. The said wastes are just being dumped in landfills. This act poses a significant environmental hazard as it will result in the reduction of soil fertility, reduction in water percolation, emission of toxic gases, emission of hazardous chemicals to animals, and pollution of ground water because of the leaching chemicals from these wastes.

The productive use of waste material represents a means of alleviating some of the problems of solid waste management (Davis and Cornwell, 1998). From different points of view, it is important to reuse waste plastic. It helps to save and sustain natural resources that are not replenished, it decreases the pollution of the environment and it also helps to save and recycle energy production processes. Wastes and industrial by-products should be considered as potentially valuable resources merely awaiting appropriate treatment and application.
With the rising consumption of plastic materials in recent times and its negative impacts to the environment it is evident that one must find a way to alleviate this problem. If not dealt with properly, the rising consumption of plastic materials might result to a dirtier and destructive environmental situation. The use of recycled plastic materials in the concrete mixture as a fine aggregate replacement is one way of alleviating this problem.
Concrete plays a very important role in the advantageous use of these materials in construction activities. From tall buildings down to a one storey house, concrete is essential for its durability. Some waste materials can be constructively included or used in concrete, both as part of the fibrous materials or as aggregates, but it is important to understand that not all waste materials are suitable for such type of use because it might affect its durability and stability (Anon, 2003).

This research is conducted to determine the durability of using recycled plastic as fine aggregate to cement mixture compared to sand. In this light, determining the durability of recycled plastics as fine aggregate in concrete mixture is essential to gain knowledge and determine its applicability and effectiveness in concrete construction.

Theoretical Background
This research study utilized the Theory of Waste Management by Pongracz, Phillips and Keiski (2004). This theory shows a thorough account of the coverage and conceptual examination of waste, the activity upon waste, and a comprehensive view of the objectives of waste management.
33210500LEGAL BASIS
Republic Act No. 9003
Known as “Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000”
Republic Act No. 6541
Known as “National Building Code of the Philippines”
00LEGAL BASIS
Republic Act No. 9003
Known as “Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000”
Republic Act No. 6541
Known as “National Building Code of the Philippines”
00THEORIES
Theory of Waste Management
By Pongracz, Phillips and Keiski
Particle Packing Theory
By Kumar ; Santhanam
00THEORIES
Theory of Waste Management
By Pongracz, Phillips and Keiski
Particle Packing Theory
By Kumar ; Santhanam

91440024511005029200245110
center332105Durability of
Concrete Mixture
00Durability of
Concrete Mixture

40671753302091439933020
1600200366143040026573661430
3324225348615Controlled Group:
Fine Aggregate used: Sand
00Controlled Group:
Fine Aggregate used: Sand
533400348615Experimental Group:
Fine Aggregate used: Recycled HDPE Plastics
00Experimental Group:
Fine Aggregate used: Recycled HDPE Plastics

434340068580001600200698500533400309880Recommendations
Recommendations

Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of the Study
Waste Management Theory is established on the assumption that waste management is to prevent waste to cause harm to both the environment and human health. The appropriate meaning of waste is critical to constructing a feasible program of waste management.

This theory will be applied by the researchers when gathering recycled plastic materials to be use on the conduct of the study. The gathered waste plastic materials will then be turned into something useful to promote a good waste management.

Another theory that utilized in this study is the Particle Packing Theory by Kumar ; Santhanam (2003). This theory states that there is a need for a comprehensive understanding on the composition of the variety of concrete mixtures proportion’s characteristics both newly made and in hardened states. A concrete’s applicability to building construction is directly affected by the degree and packing of its composition. Hence, there is a need to have knowledge of the concept of particle packing and its effect on concrete performance to enable a mixture designer to select from a wide range of cement replacement materials. Selecting the right composition for a concrete mixture is important because if done incorrectly an unexpected behavior is often encountered on the resultant concrete. A more viable strategy is to design the concrete mixtures based on optimal packing of the granular particles, and improved flow properties of the cement paste using a superplasticiser.
This theory is applied by the researchers on determining if the resultant concrete mixture that uses HDPE recycled plastic materials as fine aggregate will have a good packing density that improves the concrete’s performance.

This research is anchored on Republic Act No. 6541 which is known as the “National Building Code of the Philippines” which provides the minimum standards and requirements of different materials to be used in building construction.
This republic act is used by the researchers to determine if the concrete mixture that uses HDPE recycled plastic as its fine aggregate passed the minimum standards and requirements as a concrete for building construction.

This research is also anchored on Republic Act No. 9003 which is known as the “Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000” which declares the policy of the state in adopting a good ecological solid waste management program through good environmental practices.
This republic act is utilized in the gathering and recycling of plastic waste specifically HDPE that will be utilized as a fine aggregate to concrete mixture. This provides a good way of recycling the said plastic waste.

Related Literature
In an article from Plastics Europe entitled “What are plastics?” (n.d), states that plastics are excellent for a broad range of consumer and manufacturing applications because it is an exceptionally versatile material. Most of these materials are light weight because they have a relatively low density and although most have excellent electrical insulation and thermal properties, some of these materials can be made to conduct electricity. Plastics are strong and applicable for use in harsh environments because they can resist corrosion and to many substances which attack other materials. They can also easily be made into intricate shapes which allows other materials to be used into plastic products, and making them suitable for a broad range of applications. Moreover, if the given plastic’s physical properties do not quite meet the specified qualifications, it can still be improved because plastic’s properties can be modified with the addition of colours, foaming, reinforcing fillers, agents, plasticizers, flame retardants etc., to meet the demands of the specific application.

In an article from Encyclopædia Britannica entitled “How concrete is made” (n.d), it states that a concrete mixture in its simplest form is a combination of aggregates and paste. The paste is composed of Portland cement mixed with water which coats the surface of both fine and coarse aggregates. This is done through a process called hydration, which is the hardening and gaining strength of the paste to form a concrete which is similar to a rock-like mass.

This process holds the key of the impressive traits of a concrete: when is newly mixed it is malleable but when it is hardened it turns into solid and durable. These traits explain why one concrete material can build sidewalks, concrete, skyscrapers, bridges, superhighways, houses and dams.

In an article from The America’s Cement Manufacturers™ entitled “Aggregate” (n.d), states that in building and construction, aggregates are the materials used for mixing with cement, lime, bitumen, gypsum, or other adhesive to make a concrete or mortar. Aggregates provide resistance to wear or erosion, volume, stability, and other needed physical properties to the concrete or mortar. Fine and course aggregates are the two main types of aggregates. Examples of fine aggregate includes sand, crushed stone, and crushed slag screenings while examples of coarse aggregate consists of gravel (pebbles), fragments of broken stone, slag, and other coarse substances. Fine aggregate is needed in making thin concrete slabs or other structural members and where a smooth surface is desired while coarse aggregate is needed for more massive members.

Related Studies
In the study of Safinia and Alkalbani (2016) conducted in Oman reveals that the strength by using plastic bottles compared to local concrete box showed a 57% difference. This proves that there is a further need for research in this topic to ensure reliability of results.

In the findings of the study entitled “Use of Waste Plastic Materials for Road Construction in Ghana” by Appiah, Berko-Boateng, and Tagbor (2017) it states that the use of recycled plastic materials as binder modification provides the advantage of a cheap and effective means of enhancing conventional bitumen binder performance characteristics and is an alternative way to utilize plastic waste.

Trimbakwala (2017) states in his study entitled “Use of Waste Plastic in Road Construction” in India that between the roads which are laid out with shredded plastic waste and roads laid out with asphalt with the ordinary mix; it shows that the latter is less durable compared to the first. Through the use of the innovative technology it enables to strengthen the road construction, increase the road life, and improve the environment.

A study conducted in Lecce, Italy on the use of recycled PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete by Frigione (2010) finds out that the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET) concretes when compared to a reference standard concrete showed a similar compressive strength, slightly lower workability characteristics and splitting tensile strength, and a moderately higher ductility.

In the study of Kou, Lee, ; Poon (2009) in determining of the properties of lightweight aggregate concrete that is prepared with polyvinyl chloride granules from recycled PVC pipes conducted in Hong Kong shows two major findings. The positive side shows that the concrete prepared with a partial replacement by PVC was lighter because it has lower density, was more ductile which means greater Poisson’s ratios and reduced modulus of elasticity, and had lower drying shrinkage and higher resistance to chloride ion penetration. The negative side shows that the compressive strength, workability and tensile strength of the concrete mixtures were lowered.
Tavakoli and Soroushian (1996) states that by using proper measures a high-quality concrete material can be made using recycled concrete aggregate. For this purpose, it is needed to determine the properties of the original concrete, based on the targeted recycled aggregate concrete’s feasible qualities.

Olorunsogo and Padayachee (2002) in their study conducted in South Africa on the performance of recycled aggregate concrete reveals that recycled aggregate concrete leads to a poor performance. This is linked with the cracks and fissures that were formed in the recycled aggregate concrete mixture during the preparation phase, thus making the aggregate susceptible to diffusion, permeation, and absorption of liquids.

Poweth, George, and Paul (2013) reveals that through the Standard proctor test results they find out that waste plastics that is mixed with soil samples, the optimum water content increases as the percentage of plastic waste in mix increases and the maximum dry density decreases. They concluded that higher percentage of plastic waste is not advisable because as the plastic waste percentage increases the liquid limit also increases.

Jibrael and Peter (2016) states that when waste plastic bottles is increased from 0 to 5% of the sand in the mixture there is a decrease in the ratios of 12.81, 10.71, and increase by 4.1% respectively in the 7th day in the compressive, tensile and flexural strength of concrete and also in the 28th day these concrete strength is further decreased by the ratios 7.93, 28.6, and 23.6%.

Ismail and AL-Hashmi (2007) states that using recycled plastic waste as a sand aggregate replacement in a concrete mixture gives a good way in reducing the expenditure of cost in materials and providing a sustainable way in reducing plastic waste.

THE PROBLEM
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to use recycled plastics specifically high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in concrete mixture as its fine aggregate. Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the durability of the concrete mixture that uses sand as its fine aggregate?
2. What is the durability of the concrete mixture that uses recycled plastics as its fine aggregate?
3. Is there a significant difference between the durability of the concrete mixture that uses sand as its fine aggregate compared to using recycled plastic as its fine aggregate?
Statement of the Null Hypothesis
There no significant difference between the durability of the concrete mixture that uses sand as its fine aggregate compared to using recycled plastic as its fine aggregate.

Significance of the Study
The result of this study will be valuable to the following individuals:
The civil engineers, who plan, design and oversee maintenance and construction of building structures. They will have knowledge on the implications of using plastic as a fine aggregate to concrete mixture. This will provide them adequate information that they can apply in their fields of work.

The construction workers, who build and repair variety of structures such as buildings, highways, bridges, and roads. They will be able to determine on how to use recycled plastic specifically HDPE as a fine aggregate on concrete mixture.

The homeowners, who are looking for suitable materials for building construction. That through this study they will be able to compare the durability of using recycled plastic as fine aggregate to cement compared to using sand.

The future researchers, who will be conducting a similar research on this topic. They will gain knowledge and information about using HDPE plastics as a fine aggregate to cement.

Scope and Limitations
This study is focused on the use of recycled plastic as a fine aggregate to concrete mixture. It aims to look into its effects on the concrete mixture’s durability compared to using sand as a fine aggregate.

This limits only to the use of HDPE recycled plastics as the fine aggregate of the experimental group and the commonly used sand as the fine aggregate for the controlled group. The two samples will have the same ratio and brand of other materials to be used. The durability of the two samples will only be determined through the use of a uniaxial compression test.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design
This study adapts the experimental research design. This is used to achieve the research’s purpose to determine the durability of the experimental group which is the concrete mixture that uses HDPE recycled plastic as a fine aggregate and compare it to the controlled group which is using the commonly used sand as a fine aggregate. A uniaxial compression test will be conducted on the two groups to determine the extent of the force that controlled and experimental group can handle.

Research Environment
This study will be conducted at Tagbilaran City, Bohol, Philippines. It is a 3rd class city and capital of the province of Bohol, Philippines. The preparation of the experimental group and controlled group will be done in Barangay Manga in Tagbilaran City. The testing proper of the durability of the concrete mixtures will be conducted in a Machine Shop located along 52 J.A Clarin St. A uniaxial compression test will be conducted by the use of the hydraulic press that is available inside the machine shop.

Research Subjects
The subject of this study will be the concrete mixture that uses HDPE recycled plastics and the concrete mixture that uses sand as their respective fine aggregate. The subjects’ materials only vary in the type of fine aggregate used.

Research Materials and Equipment
The equipment and materials needed in conducting the experiment are as follows.

Portland Cement
Sand
Fine HDPE Recycled Plastic
Gravel
Water
Bucket
Masonry trowel
Cylindrical mold
Hydraulic Press
Research Procedure
The materials for the two concrete mixtures were first prepared: Portland cement, Sand, Fine HDPE Recycled Plastic, Gravel, and Water. In making the first and second concrete mixture the ingredients are mixed in a ratio of 1:2:3:0.5 to achieve maximum strength. That is 1 part cement, 2 parts fine aggregate, 3 parts gravel, and 0.5 part water. Both concrete mixtures are mixed simultaneously in their respective buckets. After thoroughly being mixed, the concrete mixtures are then poured into a cylindrical mold that has dimensions of 4 inches height and 6 inches diameter. After 7 days when both concrete already hardened they are then removed from the molds and a uniaxial compression test was conducted in both concrete using a hydraulic press. The compressive force at which the subjects are observed to be cracking will then be noted.

Statistical Treatment
To calculate the cross-section area, or A of the specimen this formula was used:
A = ?r2
Where:
? = pi
r = radius of the specimen.

To calculate the compressive strength this formula is used:
S = P/A
Where:
S = compressive strength
P = maximum load applied to the specimen
A = area.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following are terms that are defined according to their operational definition which is a way of defining the terms on how they are used in this study.

Aggregate
It is component of cement mixture used to bind the mixture together.
Cement
A chalklike material formed with calcined clay and lime. It forms a mortar when mixed with an aggregate and water to make concrete.

Concrete
A stonelike mass when hardened that is used for a wide range of construction activities.

High-Density Polyethylene
It is a kind of plastic that is renowned for its tensile strength.

Hydraulic Press
It is device that generates a compressive force using a hydraulic cylinder to test uniaxial compression.
Portland cement
Manufactured cement from clay and limestone that hardens when mixed and dried with water.

Uniaxial Compression Test
It is used to test the durability of the concrete mixture through its maximum compressive strength.

5542915-685800
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHY A.AL-Hashmi, Z. Z. (2007, August 24). Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from Science Direct: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956053X07002784
Aggregate Building Material. (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2018, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/technology/aggregate
Alkalbani, S. S. (2016, December 2). Use of Recycled Plastic Water Bottles in Concrete Blocks. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from Science Direct: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705816339534
Cornwell, D. a. (2007, November). Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement. Retrieved 27 2018, June, from Research Gate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5913087_Use_of_waste_plastic_in_concrete_mixture_as_aggregate_replacement
How Concrete is Made. (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2018, from America’s Cement Manufacturers: http://www.cement.org/cement-concrete-applications/how-concrete-is-made
Johnson Kwabena Appiah, V. N.-B. (2016, August 8). Use of waste plastic materials for road construction in Ghana. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from Science Direct: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214509516300614
MariaenricaFrigione. (2010, January 25). Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from Science Direct: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956053X10000735
Mercy Joseph Poweth, S. G. (n.d.). STUDY ON USE OF PLASTIC WASTE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from Research ; Reviews: http://www.rroij.com/open-access/study-on-use-of-plastic-waste-in-road-construction.php?aid=44938
Padayachee, F. T. (2000, September 29). Performance of recycled aggregate concrete monitored by durability indexes. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from Science Direct: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008884601006536
Peter, M. A. (2016, April 22). Strength and Behavior of Concrete Contains Waste Plastic. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from Journal of Ecosystem ; Ecography: https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/strength-and-behavior-of-concrete-contains-waste-plastic-2157-7625-1000186.php?aid=74481
S.C.Kou, G. C. (2008, June 11). Properties of lightweight aggregate concrete prepared with PVC granules derived from scraped PVC pipes. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from Science Direct: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956053X08001864
Sambhaji, P. P. (2016, December). Use Of Waste Plastic In Concrete Mixture As Aggregate Replacement. Retrieved June 27, 2018, from Archive: https://archive.org/stream/23UseOfWastePlasticInConcreteMixtureAsAggregateReplacement/23+Use+of+Waste+Plastic+in+Concrete+Mixture+as+Aggregate+Replacement_djvu.txt
Soroushian, M. T. (2010, March 1). International Concrete Abstracts Portal. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from American Concrete Institute: https://www.concrete.org/publications/internationalconcreteabstractsportal/m/details/id/9802
Trimbakwala, A. (2017, April). Plastic Roads – Use of Waste Plastic in Road Construction. Retrieved August 2, 2018, from International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications: http://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0417.php?rp=P646328
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