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ABSTRACT Presently at the manufacturing site of SR its testing for different errors is done manually

ABSTRACT
Presently at the manufacturing site of SR its testing for different errors is done manually, leading to marketing of products more prone to errors caused due to manual testing. As the present testing system is a bit clumsy and a bit inefficient in producing quality products; So, the problem demands more efficient and automated system for supplying more reliable and trusted SR to the market.so our proposed system will perform automatic tests on SR in order to produce more reliable and efficient products. Thus, depending on comparison with standard results system will decide whether solenoid relay is functioning correctly for designed parameters or not. Hence, it will avoid the faulty relay being used in the system. To identify reliable relay there is need to focus on different areas to test solenoid relay.
Proposed system will do following test on the specified solenoid relay:
Voltage pickup test.

Voltage dropout test.

Coil current test
Coil temperature test.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1Introduction
What is solenoid?
Solenoid is a coil wound around the nonmagnetic material such as Plastic orPaper etc. According to the design solenoid relay can be normally closed or opened types. When the supply given to relay, Piston is attracted within the field of the solenoid. The force of attraction is equal to K1I2 – K2, where ?1 depends upon the number of turns on the operating solenoid, the air gap. K2 is the restraining force, usually produced by a spring. When the relay is balanced, the resultant force is zero and therefore ?112 =K2.

Solenoids are used to create movement and relays are for switching on and off a device that requires a large amount of current or voltage to operate. As these parts are used,heat is generated each time the pull in coil is energized. The longer duration or the faster cycling of the coil the less time that is available for heat dissipation of the winding.Environment is also a factor in the life expectancy of this type of the device.Heat and corrosion will also break down the insulation on the winding and eventually become shorted,even though the device may still be operating.So, there is great need for solenoid relay to perform accurately without any error for good performance of the device.Thus there is need to test solenoid relay for various parameter as per the requirement.

What is difference between Solenoid relay and normal relay?
A solenoid relay opens a heavy duty switch (30 amp or more sometimes), when a low amount of current is applied. Example to activate the starter. The wire from the switch is not heavy enough to carry the current from the battery to the starter, so the key operates the solenoid and the solenoid carries the current to the starter. A relay opens or closes another switch usually when you turn the key on. Example: to operate your power windows when the key is in, but not when the key is off.

A solenoid relay works by having electricity flow through its copper wire that is provided by a power supply and a switch. All relays contain a sensing unit, the electric coil, which is powered by AC or DC current. When applied
They do the same thing. The only difference is, the relay powers a small load like the headlights and a solenoid powers a large load like the starter motor that cranks the engine over.

The system that we are designingis used to test voltage pick up, voltage drop out, in timer test and also in the temperature test.Here we use microcontroller. For voltage sensing purpose we use PT.CT is used for sensing the amount of current through the circuit. To recognize the position of piston of Relay we are using limit switch. We are using LM35 as our temperature sensor.PCB designing is done with the help of software Protel/OrCAD and programming is done with the help of SPJ/C51.Result will be displayed on LCD and can be monitored on PC.

Designing of block diagram as per its functional working is important aspect for efficient designing of the system. This chapter explores the basic block diagram and the components used in designing of the proposed system. Block diagram includes idea of placement of the basic components used in system as per its working. Easily available components are used such as microcontroller, autotransformer, current transformer, MAX232, LCD, buzzer, ADC, temperature sensor etc. Detailed information regarding the components used in the system is covered in this chapter
Proposed system will do following test on the specified solenoid relay:
Voltage pickup test.

Voltage dropout test.

Timer test.

Temperature test.

1.Voltage pickup test:
Voltage pickup test is performed to find out the minimum voltage required to turn on solenoid. Apply 70% Vmax voltage and observe the reading. Potential Transformer (PT) is used in voltage sensing. Output of PT is given to signal condition block. The signal condition block is connected to Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). Microcontroller takes input from ADC and will display it on LCD.

2.Voltage dropout test:
Voltage dropout test is performed to find out the minimum voltage required to turn off SR. The output of PT is given to signal conditioning block. The signal conditioning block is connected to ADC. Micro controller take input from ADC and will display it on LCD.

3. Timer test
Timer test is used to find out the dynamic characteristics of solenoid relay. SR should remain “on” for that particular time. If before time solenoid relay turns “off”, test will be “fail”. If it remains “on” test will be “pass”. For example 1min.5 min, 60 min.

4. Temperature test:
This test is used to obtain operating temperature range of SR. With this test proposed system will be able to find out minimum and maximum value of allowable temperature for normal operation of the SR. If the obtained temperature is within the range of specified operating temperature range of the SR then test will be pass else it will be fail. With proposed system manufacturer will be able to fabricate more reliable and trustable products in influence of automated testing system for four important parameters as discussed above. The result generated after testing is stored in PC. Since, result is generated on PC through proper software interface it can be used for tracing the warranty of product as well as serial no. of the product.

1.2Need of Project
Currently on actual manufacturing site all the test carried out manually.

Suppose to calculate voltage or current of the relay then we have measure it on
Digital Multi Meter (DMM).There may be chances occurring of human errors.

And as the testing’s are carried at large power supply it is not
Manpower requirement is more.

No storage facility for test report.

Hence to avoid such problems, it is the need to implement the system which performs better and overcomes the presents system’s limitations and demands more efficient and automated system for supplying more reliable and trusted SR to the market.

1.3 Target Community of Project
Solenoid Relay are widely used in electronic industry for switching purpose, it is also used in MSEB, Security System, Electronic latch and so much; In such a case if relay fails it can affect the whole the system, so relay testing is too much necessary.

The relay provides isolation of the high power circuit from the low power logic circuit to protect the low power circuit.

Fig.1.1 Solenoid Relay
1.4Scope of Project
Solenoids are used to create movement and relays are for switching on and off a device that requires a large amount of current or voltage to operate. As these parts are used, heat is generated each time the pull-in coil is energized. The longer duration or the faster cycling of the coil, the less time that is available for heat dissipation of the winding Environment is also a factor in the life expectancy of this type of device. Heat and corrosion will break down the insulation on the windings and eventually become shorted, even though the device may still be operating. So, there is great need for solenoid relay to perform accurately without any error for good performance of device. Thus there is need to test solenoid relay for various parameters as per the requirement.

Proposed system will perform automatic tests on SR in order to produce more reliable and efficient products. Thus, depending on comparison with standard results system will decide whether solenoid relay is functioning correctly for designed parameters or not. Hence, it will avoid the faulty relay being used in the system. To identify reliable relay there is need to focus on different areas to test solenoid relay.
1.5Objective of Project
With the increase in number of units produced in the company, the need of automated testing system increases for automatic testing of products produced. The result of various tests performed are displayed and stored in PC, from where the printout of results can be taken for various certifications also. There is need to design a system which will test various parameters of solenoid relay. Primary objective of proposed system is test the solenoid relay for different parameters. Furthermore, depending on comparison with standard results system will decide whether solenoid relay functioning correctly for designed parameters or not, hence it will avoid the faulty relay being used in the system. To identify reliable relay there is need to focus on different areas to test solenoid relay.

1.6Gantt chart

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1History
All the methods available today to test solenoid relay are manual methods also there is no provision to display the result on LCD and store test report on PC. Inthis topic all the test are carried automatically thus we will cover the evolution and also overcome drawbacks of early methods of testing solenoid relay

Fig.2.1 Solenoid Testing using meter
Currently in the companies which have a product the Solenoid relays like “Supriya Electromech”. They are going to test the parameter of solenoid relay like resistance, turns of coil and temperature at which they operated and going to saturation is manually operating.The resistance and winding initially tested and operating voltage also but, the changes in the output will be take place as the time increase, because the temperature of coil increases as temperature increases, hence output also changes the change in output have to note data every time which will time consumption and the man power consumption process. To avoid this problem or to overcome this problem the company “SupriyaElectromech” suggests a project to develop automatic system for the testing of product.The coil of solenoid operated at cold temperature (24°C) the resistance is 900? and at room temperature is 1264?. The voltage pick up test take place at 70%to 80%(i.e. if actual voltage is 76 then pick up at 83 voltage i.e.drop out is 8 volt).

Hence we are going to develop the system to test and satisfy all requirement or conditions as per demand of company.We are interfacing the key board with the system by which we can select testing for different timing, we can program different test time such as 5min,10min,30min after completion of time slot selected by user system shows the result on LCD display or we can store it on PC for analysis. An electromagnetic relay is a type of electrical switch controlled by electronic action.electromagnetic relays have been widely used in industrial application.there are many products of of electromagnetic relay test on market,such as l336i producd by PONOVO power limited of china,S d byEL-400 relay test system produced by SEL university USA.But these test system can not test the time parameters of relay.The critical parameters ,such as coil resistance ,pull in voltage,drop out voltage and time parameters,can be tested by only sampling the relay coil current ,electric shock voltage and driver supply voltage.However,there are mainly three drawback in this time parameters testing system.The first drawback is low sampling frequency:the highest sampling frequency is 4 M Hertz.The other drawback is the low testing speed,it is impossible to speed up the testing because the test data is huge and must be transferred to the central PC.The last drawback is that the system is heavy and power consuming is high.To solve the drawbacks,the electromagnetic relay test system4 has been designed based on 32- bit floating Microcontroller TMS320F2835.The test system based on the floating-point MCU-TMS320F28335 is an automated test equipment(ATE).The parameters of an electromagnetic relay can be tested conveniently and accurately.In addition ,because the huge testing data can be processed inside the MCU rather than to be transferred.

2.2 Various Transformers Testing Techniques
2.2.1 Voltage testing using voltage transformer
In practice a voltage transformer can be used as a voltage sensor. The voltage transformer must be connected across the transmission lines. The primary of the transformer must be connected to the transmission lines and the secondary must be given to the microcontroller. A step down voltage transformer is used. In the paper made use of a potentiometer in place of a voltage sensor. A potentiometer (colloquially known as a “pot”) is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. It is a measuring device which measures the voltage or current at the output by comparing it with the known input voltage. Varying the input voltage is a difficult process and requires advanced equipments. In the potentiometer the input is fixed at some maximum and minimum value. By turning the notch of the potentiometer the output voltage is varied, whenever the output voltage exceeds the bounds it indicates the occurrence of fault. After the fault is indicated the microcontroller gives trip signals to the relay which in turn operates the circuit breaker. However in real time applications a potentiometer cannot be used, a voltage transformer should be used.
2.2.1.1Actual Test for voltage sensing
We are using Potential Transformer(PT).We applied product at input of transformer and output voltage of transformer is sense by PT and Output of PT is given to signal condition block.The signal condition block is connected to ADC. Microcontroller take input from ADC and give to LCD.LCD show the Value of Voltage.
For Step up transformer
Input to transformer: – 230v
AC Output of transformer:-230+10% i.e.253+-1%
If this output is getting then test pass otherwise test Fail
For step down transformer
Input to transformer:- 230v
AC Output of transformer:-207+10% i.e.207+-1%
If this output is getting then test pass otherwise test Fail
2.2.2 Current test using current transformer
Current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of alternating electric currents. Current transformers, together with voltage (or potential) transformers (VT or PT), are known as instrument transformers. When current in a circuit is too high to apply directly to measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. A current transformer isolates the measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry4.

2.2.2.1 Actual Test for current sensing
We are using current transformer(CT). Applied product at input of transformer and output load of transformer is sense by CT and Output of CT is given to signal condition block. The signal condition block is connected to ADC. Microcontroller take input from ADC and give to LCD.LCD show the Value of current.
For Step up transformer Output load:- 0.5A 120w Lamp Load Output Current:- 0.5A i.e.0.3A test pass otherwise test will fail.
For step down transformer,
Output load:- 0.6A 120w
Lamp Load Output Current: – 0.6A i.e.0.3 test pass otherwise test will fail.
2.2.3 Temperature Test using LM35
Temperature Recorder using LM35: Here is how you can make an LM35 a temperature recorder by using the 12F675 PIC microcontroller as the controller and data store. It generates serial output so that you can view the results on a PC and it also calculates the temperature reading in Fahrenheit sending both to the serial port at half second intervals. In temperature testing we placed temperature sensor across winding of transformer. From that we measure the winding temperature of transformer.Observe the Temperature before and after Time Test.It should be within Range. IF temp cross range test will be Fail.
For Step up transformer
Output load:-0.5A
Output temp: – ¡65 degrees i.e. ¡65 degrees test pass otherwise test Fail.
For step down transformer
Output load:-0.6A
Output temp: – 65 degrees i.e. 65 degrees test pass otherwise test Fail.
2.2.4 Timer test using
Relay Time Test means to find out the behavior of solenoid relay. It should be ON for that particular time.If before time solenoid relay off test will be Fail. If ON test will be pass.

CHAPTER 3
DESIGN METHODOLOGY
System requirements and Specifications
1. Dc supply voltage=5V
2.Coil voltage=230V AC
3.Operating pick up voltage=175V
4.Operating drop out voltage=75V
3.3.1. Microcontroller AT89S52:
This block receives command from keyboard, if start command receive it turn on the relay which supplies energy to solenoid otherwise turn of relay.It also process output coming from ADC IC and perform respective action.

Specifications:
Compatible with MCS-51® Products
8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
Three-level Program Memory Lock
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
Eight Interrupt Sources
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
Watchdog Timer
Dual Data Pointer
Power-off Flag
Solenoid relay:
This is the product block on which we are going to perform different tests.Current & power transformer block
Specifications
Air Quality-Standard Shop Air, Lubricated or Dry, 40 µm Filtration
Consumption-Direct Current: Holding = 5 W
Alternating Current: Holding = 6 VA; Inrush = 20 VA
Cv (kv)-0.05 (0.65)
Degree of Protection-IP 65
Electrical Connection-Plug-in Connector, 22-30 mm, Ø 9 mm Cable Entry, Terminal Capacity 1.5 mm2
Flow rate at 90 PSI (6 bar) in SCFM (l/mn ANR)-2.1 (60)
Manual Control-Yes
Materials
Body…………………………. Polyamide
Poppet………………….. Polyurethane
Seals…………………. Nitrile (Buna N)
Mounting-3-Ported Subbase
Number of Operations with Dry Air at 90 PSI and 70°F – Frequency 1 Hz 10 Million
Operating Positions-All Positions
Operating Pressure-40 to 115 PSIG (3 to 8 bar)
Rated Insulation Voltage-660V AC or DC
Duty Rating-100 %
Response Time-8 to 12 msec
Standard Voltages-24 VDC; 48 VDC; 24 VAC; 48 VAC; 120 VAC; 240 VAC
Temperature-Operating 32°F to 122°F (0°C to +50°C)
Storage–22°F to 140°F (-30°C to +60°C)
LCD Display:
Use to display the test readings.

Specifications
Character LCD 16×2
5×8 dots includes cursor
Bulit-in controller (ST7066 or Equivalent)
+5V power supply only
Negative voltage optional for +3V power supply
1/16 duty cycle
White LED backlight not available
Interface : 6800, option SPI/I2C (RW1063 IC)
3.2Block diagram and description
Designing of block diagram as per its functional working is important aspect for efficient designing of the system. This chapter explores the basic block diagram and the components used in designing of the proposed system. Block diagram includes idea of placement of the basic components used in system as per it’s working. Easily available components are used such as microcontroller, autotransformer, current transformer, MAX232, LCD, buzzer, ADC, temperature sensor etc. Detailed information regarding the components used in the system is covered in this chapter.

Fig.3.1 block diagram of solenoid relay testing
The system that we are designingis used to test voltage pick up, voltage drop out, in timer test and also in the temperature test. Here we use microcontroller. For voltage sensing purpose we use PT.CT is used for sensing the amount of current through the circuit. To recognize the position of piston of Relay we are using limit switch. We are using LM35 as our temperature sensor.

Solenoid relays (SR) are electromechanical switches often used as industrial controls tooperate heavy machinery and automated equipment on assembly lines. The relay is a switch operated by a solenoid which opens and closes the relay as needed. An electric current is applied to the solenoid portion of the solenoid relay. Activation of the solenoid causes it to move, which opens or closes the relay. When the current is removed, the action is reversed. So heat and corrosion will break down the insulation on the windings and eventually become shorted, even though the device may still be operating. So, there is great need for solenoid relay to perform accurately without any error for good performance of device. Thus there is need to test solenoid relay for various parameters as per the requirement.

3.3Hardware design
Microcontroller AT89S52
ADC 0809
Power supply
Solenoid relay
Relay
Autotransformer
MAX232
LCD 16 x 2
Limit switch
LM35 (Temperature Sensor)
PT (Potential Transformer)
CT (Current Transformer)
Buzzer
Microcontroller AT89S52
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the Indus-try-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.

Fig.3.2 pin diagram of microcontroller AT89S52
Pin Description
VCC
Supply voltage.
GND
Ground
Port 0
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.

Port 1
Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.
Port 2
Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.
Port Pin Alternate Functions
P1.0 T2 (external count input to Timer/Counter 2), clock-out
P1.1 T2EX (Timer/Counter 2 capture/reload trigger and direction control)
P1.5 MOSI (used for In-System Programming)
P1.6 MISO (used for In-System Programming)
P1.7 SCK (used for In-System Programming)
Port 3
Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in the following table.

Table3.1 pin functions of port3
Port Pin Alternate Functions
P3.0 RXD (serial input port)
P3.1 TXD (serial output port)
P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0)
P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1)
P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input)
P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input)
P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe)
P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe)
RST
Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled.
ALE/PROG
Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. Port Pin Alternate Functions
P3.0 RXD (serial input port)
P3.1 TXD (serial output port)
P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0)
P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1)
P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input)
P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input)
P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe)
P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe)
PSEN
Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.
EA/VPP
External Access Enable EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.
XTAL1
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
XTAL2
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

Features
Compatible with MCS®-51 Products
8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory – Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
Three-level Program Memory Lock
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
Eight Interrupt Sources
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
Watchdog Timer
Dual Data Pointer
Power-off Flag
Fast Programming Time
Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)
Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option
3.3.2 ADC 0809
ADC0809 data acquisition component is a monolithic CMOS device with an 8-bit analog-to-digital converter, 8-channel multiplexer and microprocessor compatible control logic. The 8-bit A/D converter uses successive approximation as the conversion technique. The converter features a high impedance chopper stabilized comparator, a 256R voltage divider with analog switch tree and a successive approximation register. The 8-channel multiplexer can directly access any of 8-single-ended analog signals. The device eliminates the need for external zero and full-scale adjustments. Easy interfacing to microprocessors is provided by the latched and decoded multiplexer address inputs and latched TTL TRI-STATE® outputs. The design of the ADC0809 has been optimized by incorporating the most desirable aspects of several A/D conversion techniques.
The ADC0809 offers high speed, high accuracy, minimal temperature dependence, excellent long-term accuracy and repeatability, and consumes minimal power. These features make this device ideally suited to applications from process and machine control to consumer and automotive applications. For 16-channel multiplexer with common output (sample/hold port) see ADC0816 data sheet. (See AN-247 for more information.)

Fig.3.3 Pin diagram of ADC 0809
PIN Description
Table 3.2 pin description of ADC 0809
Pin Number Description
1 IN3 – Analog Input 3
2 IN4 – Analog Input 4
3 IN5 – Analog Input 5
4 IN6 – Analog Input 6
5 IN7 – Analog Input 7
6 START – Start Conversion
7 EOC – End of Conversion
8 2(-5) – Tri-State Output Bit 5
9 OUT EN – Output Enable
10 CLK – Clock
11 Vcc – Positive Supply
12 Vref+ – Positive Voltage Reference Input
13 GND – Ground
14 2(-7) – Tri-State Output Bit 7
15 2(-6) – Tri-State Output Bit 6
16 Vref- – Voltage Reference Negative Input
17 2(-8) – Tri-State Output Bit 8
18 2(-4) – Tri-State Output Bit 4
19 2(-3) – Tri-State Output Bit 3
20 2(-2) – Tri-State Output Bit 2
21 2(-1) – Tri-State Output Bit 1
22 ALE – Address Latch Enable
23 ADD C – Address Input C
24 ADD B – Address Input B
25 ADD A – Address Input A
26 IN0 – Analog Input 0
27 IN1 – Analog Input 1
28 IN2 – Analog Input 2
Features
Easy interface to all microprocessors n Operates ratio metrically or with 5 VDC or analog span adjusted voltage reference
No zero or full-scale adjust required n 8-channel multiplexer with address logic
0V to 5V input range with single 5V power supply
Outputs meet TTL voltage level specifications
Standard hermetic or molded 28-pin DIP package
28-pin molded chip carrier package
ADC0808 equivalent to MM74C949
ADC0809 equivalent to MM74C949-1
Key Specifications
Resolution 8 Bits
Total Unadjusted Error ±1?2 LSB and ±1 LSB
Single Supply 5 VDC
Low Power 15 mW
Conversion Time 100 µs
3.3.3.Power supply
Description
The electrical power is almost exclusively generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of ac because of economical consideration but for operation of most of the electronic devices and circuits, dc supply is required. Dry cells and batteries can be used for this purpose. No doubt, they have the advantages of being portable and ripple free but their voltages are low, they need frequent replacement and are expensive in comparison to conventional dc power supplies.

Fig.3.4 block diagram of power supply

Fig.3.5 circuit diagram of power supply
Now days, almost all electronic equipment includes a circuit that converts ac supply into dc supply. The part of equipment that converts ac into dc is called DC power supply. In general at the input of the power supply there is a power transformer. It is followed by a rectifier (a diode circuit) 1a smoothing filter and then by a voltage regulator circuit.

From the block diagram, the basic power supply is constituted by four elements,  
Transformer
Rectifier
Filter
Regulator
The output of the dc power supply is used to provide a constant dc voltage across the load. Let us briefly outline the function of each of the elements of the dc power supply.Transformer is used to step-up or step-down (usually to step-down) the-supply voltage as per need of the solid-state electronic devices and circuits to be supplied by the dc power supply. It can provide isolation from the supply line-an important safety consideration. It may also include internal shielding to prevent unwanted electrical noise signal on the power line from getting into the power supply and possibly disturbing the load.It is used to supply the power to ADC and microcontroller, LCD, etc.

Description
The electrical power is almost exclusively generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of ac because of economical consideration but for operation of most of the electronic devices and circuits, dc supply is required. Dry cells and batteries can be used for this purpose. No doubt, they have the advantages of being portable and ripple free but their voltages are low, they need frequent replacement and are expensive in comparison to conventional dc power supplies.

Now days, almost all electronic equipment includes a circuit that converts ac supply into dc supply. The part of equipment that converts ac into dc is called DC power supply. In general at the input of the power supply there is a power transformer. It is followed by a rectifier (a diode circuit) 1a smoothing filter and then by a voltage regulator circuit.

From the block diagram, the basic power supply is constituted by four elements,  
Transformer
Rectifier
Filter
Regulator
The output of the dc power supply is used to provide a constant dc voltage across the load. Let us briefly outline the function of each of the elements of the dc power supply.Transformer is used to step-up or step-down (usually to step-down) the-supply voltage as per need of the solid-state electronic devices and circuits to be supplied by the dc power supply. It can provide isolation from the supply line-an important safety consideration. It may also include internal shielding to prevent unwanted electrical noise signal on the power line from getting into the power supply and possibly disturbing the load.It is used to supply the power to ADC and microcontroller, LCD, etc.

Design of power supply
Transformer
Step-down transformer is one whose secondary voltage is less than its primary voltage. It is designed to reduce the voltage from the primary winding to the secondary winding. This kind of transformer “steps down” the voltage applied to it.As a step-down unit, the transformer converts high-voltage, low-current power into low-voltage, high-current power. The larger-gauge wire used in the secondary winding is necessary due to the increase in current. The primary winding, which doesn’t have to conduct as much current, may be made of smaller-gauge wire.

Fig.3.6 step-down transformer
Design of step down transformer:
The following information must be available to the designer of the transformer.

Power output.

Operating voltage.

Frequency range.

Efficiency and regulation.

Size of core is one of the first consideration in regard of weight and volume of a transformer. This depends on type of core and winding configuration used. Generally following formula is used to find Area or Size of the Core.

Ai = ? Wp / 0.87
Where Ai = Area of cross section in square cm.

Wp = Primary Wattage.

For our project we require +5V output, so transformer secondary winding rating is 9V, 500mA.
So secondary power wattage is,
P2 = 9 * 500mA
= 4.5Watt
So,
Ai = ? 4.5 / 0.87
= 2.4
Generally 10% of area should be added to the core.

So,
Ai = 2.8
a) Turns per volt: – Turns per volt of transformer are given by relation.

Turns per volt = 100000 / 4.44 f * Bm * Ai
Where,
F = Frequency in Hz.

Bm = Density in Wb / Square meter.

Ai = Net area of the cross section.

Following table gives the value of turns per volt for 50 Hz frequency.
Flux density 0.76 Wb /sq m 1.14 1.01 0.91 0.83
Turns per Volt
45 / Ai 40 / Ai 45 / Ai 50 / Ai 55 / Ai
Generally lower the flux density better the quality of transformer. For our project we have taken the turns per volt is 0.91 Wb / sq.m from above table.

Turns per volt = 50 / Ai
= 50 / 2.8
= 17.85
Thus the turns for the primary winding is,
220 * 17.85 = 3927
And for secondary winding,
9 * 17.85 = 160
Wire size: – As stated above the size is depends upon the current to be carried out by winding which depends upon current density. For our transformer one tie can safely use current density of 3.1 Amp / sq.mm.

For less copper loss 1.6Amp/sq.mm or 2.4sq.mm may be used generally even size gauge of wire are used.

R.M.S secondary voltage at secondary to transformer is 9V. so maximum voltage Vm across secondary is
= 9 * 1.141
= 12.727v
D.C output voltage Vm across secondary is,
Vdc = 2 * Vm/pi
= 2 * 12.727/3.14
= 8.08 V
P.I.V rating of each diode is
PIV = 2Vm
= 2 * 8.08
= 16.16 V
Maximum forward current, which flow from each diode, is 500 mA. So from above parameter, we select diode IN4007 from the diode selection manual.

Rectifier
Rectifier is a device which converts the sinusoidal ac voltage into either positive or negative pulsating dc. P-N junction diode, which conducts when forward biased and practically does not conduct when reverse biased, can be used for rectification i.e. for conversion of ac into dc. The rectifier typically needs one, two or four diodes. Rectifiers may be either half-wave rectifiers or full-wave rectifiers (centre-tap or bridge) type. The output voltage from a rectifier circuit has a pulsating character i.e., it contains unwanted ac components (components of supply frequency f and its harmonics) along with dc component. For most supply purposes, constant direct voltage is required than that furnished by a rectifier. To reduce ac components from the rectifier output voltage a filter circuit is required.

Thus filter is a device which passes dc component to the load and blocks I ac components of the rectifier output. Filter is typically constructed from reactive circuit I elements such as capacitors and/or inductors and resistors. The magnitude of output dc voltage may vary with the variation of either the input ac voltage or the magnitude of load current. So at the output of a rectifier filter combination a voltage regulator is required, to provide an almost constant dc voltage at the output of the regulator. The voltage regulator may be constructed from a Zener diode, and or discrete transistors, and/or integrated circuits (ICs). Its main function is to maintain a constant dc output voltage. However, it also rejects any ac ripple voltage that is not removed by the filter. The regulator may also include protective devices such as short-circuit protection, current limiting, thermal shutdown, or over-voltage protection.

Fig.3.7 full wave bridge rectifier
This type of single phase rectifier uses four individual rectifying diodes connected in a closed loop “bridge” configuration to produce the desired output.

The main advantage of this bridge circuit is that it does not require a special centre tapped transformer, thereby reducing its size and cost. The single secondary winding is connected to one side of the diode bridge network and the load to the other side as shown below.The four diodes labelled D1 to D4 are arranged in “series pairs” with only two diodes conducting current during each half cycle. During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2 conduct in series while diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flows through the load as shown below.

The Positive Half-cycle

 Fig.3.7 (a) positive half cycle
During the negative half cycle of the supply, diodes D3 and D4 conduct in series, but diodes D1 and D2 switch “OFF” as they are now reverse biased. The current flowing through the load is the same direction as before.

The Negative Half-cycle

Fig.3.7 (b) Negative half cycle
As the current flowing through the load is unidirectional, so the voltage developed across the load is also unidirectional the same as for the previous two diode full-wave rectifier, therefore the average DC voltage across the load is 0.637Vmax.

Typical Bridge Rectifier
However in reality, during each half cycle the current flows through two diodes instead of just one so the amplitude of the output voltage is two voltage drops ( 2 x 0.7 = 1.4V ) less than the input VMAX amplitude. The ripple frequency is now twice the supply frequency (e.g. 100Hz for a 50Hz supply or 120Hz for a 60Hz supply.)Although we can use four individual power diodes to make a full wave bridge rectifier, pre-made bridge rectifier components are available “off-the-shelf” in a range of different voltage and current sizes that can be soldered directly into a PCB circuit board or be connected by spade connectors.

The image to the right shows a typical single phase bridge rectifier with one corner cut off. This cut-off corner indicates that the terminal nearest to the corner is the positive or +ve output terminal or lead with the opposite (diagonal) lead being the negative or -ve output lead. The other two connecting leads are for the input alternating voltage from a transformer secondary winding.

Fig.3.8 output waveform of full wave bridge rectifier
Filter
An electrolytic capacitor is a sort of capacitor that utilizes an electrolyte to obtain greater capacitance than the other type of capacitors. An electrolyte is a gel or fluid in which concentration of ions is very high. Electrolytic capacitor is a general term used for three different capacitor family members:
Aluminum electrolytic capacitors
Tantalum electrolytic capacitors
Niobium electrolytic capacitors

Fig.3.9 electrolytic capacitor

Fig.3.9 (a) aluminum electrolytic capacitor indicating positive and negative terminals
Almost all the electrolytic capacitors are polarized which means the voltage of anode must be always higher than the cathode. The ability of large capacitance makes them highly useful for sending low-frequency signals. They are extensively used for noise filtering or decoupling in power supplies. The advantage of large capacitance comes with few drawbacks as well. Drawbacks include leakage currents, equivalent series resistance and a limited lifetime. Electrolytes are made up of aluminum or tantalum and few other metals.

A special type of electrolytic capacitors with capacitances of hundreds and thousands of farads are known as super capacitors. They are also known as double-layer electrolytic capacitors.

Characteristics:
Capacitance Drift:
-The electrical characteristics highly depend on the type of electrolyte used and the anode. The capacitance of electrolytic capacitors has large tolerances 20% and drifts from nominal value as the time passes. This implies aluminum capacitor whose nominal capacitance is 47µF is expected to have a value between 37.6µF and 56.4µF.Tantalum capacitors can also be made with higher tolerances, but their maximum operating voltage is very low. So they cannot be used as perfect replacement aluminum capacitors.

Applications:
Used to reduce voltage fluctuations in various filtering devices.

Used in output and input smoothing to filter when DC signal is weak with AC component.

They are extensively used for noise filtering or decoupling in power supplies.

They are used for coupling signals between amplifier stages and also to store energy in flash lamps
Voltage Regulator
A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable dc voltage independent of the load current, temperature and ac line voltage variations. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.Voltage sources in a circuit may have fluctuations resulting in not giving fixed voltage outputs. Voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value. 7805 IC, a voltage regulator integrated circuit (IC) is a member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs used to maintain such fluctuations. The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it provides. 7805 IC provides +5 volts regulated power supply with provisions to add heat sink as well. Let’s look into some of the basic ratings to get an overview.

7805 IC Rating
Input voltage range 7V- 35V
Current rating Ic = 1A
Output voltage range   VMax =5.2V,VMin=4.8V

Fig.3.10pinout diagram of LM7805
Pin Description of 7805 IC
Table3.3 Pin Details of 7805 IC
PIN NO PIN Function DESCRIPTION
1 INPUT Input voltage (7V-35V) In this pin of the IC positive unregulated voltage is given in regulation.

2 GROUND Ground (0V) In this pin where the ground is given. This pin is neutral for equally the input and output.

3 OUTPUT Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V) The output of the regulated 5V volt is taken out at this pin of the IC regulator.

The difference between the input and output voltage appears as heat. The greater the difference between the input and output voltage, the more heat is generated. If too much heat is generated, through high input voltage, the regulator can overheat. If the regulator does not have a heat sink to dissipate this heat, it can be destroyed and malfunction. Hence, it is advisable to limit the voltage to a maximum of 2-3 volts higher than the output voltage. So the two options are, design your circuit so that the input voltage going into the regulator is limited to 2-3 volts above the output regulated voltage or place an appropriate heat sink that can efficiently dissipate heat.

3.3.4Solenoid relay
Solenoid is a coil wound around the nonmagnetic material such as Plastic or Paper etc. According to the design solenoid relay can be normally closed or opened types. When the supply given to relay, Piston is attracted within the field of the solenoid. The force of attraction is equal to K1I2 – K2, where ?1 depends upon the number of turns on the operating solenoid, the air gap. K2 is the restraining force, usually produced by a spring. When the relay is balanced, the resultant force is zero and therefore ?112 =K2.

Solenoids are used to create movement; and relays are for switching on and off a device that requires a large amount of current or voltage to operate A starter solenoid is the part of an automobile/machine which switches a large electric current to the starter motor, in response to a small control current, and which in turn sets the engine in motion. The proposed system uses electromagnetic solenoid and latching relay. Here we designed Solenoid relay testing jig, which tests the relay completely. Jig is designed with the help of micro-controller 89c52, PCB designing is done through software Protel/OrCAD and programming is through software C51SPJ System. Result will be displayed on LCD.

Fig.3.11 Solenoid Relay
3.3.5Relay
The Single Pole Double Throw SPDT relay is quite useful in certain applications because of its internal configuration. It has one common terminal and 2 contacts in 2 different configurations: one can be Normally Closed and the other one is opened or it can be Normally Open and the other one closed. So basically you can see the SPDT relay as a way of switching between 2 circuits: when there is no voltage applied to the coil one circuit “receives” current, the other one doesn’t and when the coil gets energized the opposite is happening.

Fig.3.12Relay
Terminal Pins
A Single Pole Double Throw Relay comes with five terminal points.

The terminals are COIL, COIL, COM, and NO, and NC.

Fig.3.12(a)Relay
Terminal Descriptions
COIL
This is one end of the coil.

COIL
This is the other end of the coil. These are the terminals where you apply voltage to in order to give power to the coils (which then will close the switch). Polarity does not matter. One side gets positive voltage and the other side gets negative voltage. Polarity only matters if a diode is used.

NO
This is Normally Open switch. This is the terminal where you connect the device that you want the relay to power when the relay is powered, meaning when the COIL receives sufficient voltage. The device connected to NO will be off when the relay has no power and will turn on when the relay receives power. 
NC
This is the Normally Closed Switch. This is the terminal where you connect the device that you want powered when the relay receives no power. The device connected to NC will be on when the relay has no power and will turn off when the relay receives power. 
COM
This is the common of the relay. If the relay is powered and the switch is closed, COM and NO have continuity. If the relay isn’t powered and the switch is open, COM and NC have continuity. This is the terminal of the relay where you connect the first part of your circuit to.

Features
MI-1 pole series relay cover switching capacity 10A.
Slim type and small occupying area can offer high density P. C. Board technique.
Insulation distance of 8mm min. is designed. By using insulation that meets JIS insulation class E, a dielectric strength of 5000V min. and surge resistances of 1000V min. are possible.

Employment of suitable plastic materials to be applied to high temperature and various chemical solutions.
Complete protective construction from dust and soldering flux.

3.3.6.Autotransformer
An autotransformer (sometimes called auto step down transformer) is an electrical transformerwith only one winding. The “auto” (Greek for “self”) prefix refers to the single coil acting on itself and not to any kind of automatic mechanism. In an autotransformer, portions of the same winding act as both the primary and secondary sides of the transformer. The winding has at least three taps where electrical connections are made. Autotransformers have the advantages of often being smaller, lighter, and cheaper than typical dual-winding transformers, but autotransformers have the disadvantage of not providing electrical isolation.

Autotransformers are often used to step up or step down voltages in the 110-115-120 volt range and voltages in the 220-230-240 volt range—for example. providing 110 or 120V (with taps) from 230V input, allowing equipment designed for 100 or 120 volts to be used with a 230 volt supply.

An autotransformer has a single winding with two end terminals, and one or more terminals at intermediate tap points, or a transformer in which the primary and secondary coils have part or all of their turns in common. The primary voltage is applied across two of the terminals, and the secondary voltage taken from two terminals, almost always having one terminal in common with the primary voltage. The primary and secondary circuits therefore have a number of windings turns in common. Since the volts-per-turn is the same in both windings, each develops a voltage in proportion to its number of turns. In an autotransformer part of the current flows directly from the input to the output, and only part is transferred inductively, allowing a smaller, lighter, cheaper core to be used as well as requiring only a single winding one end of the winding is usually connected in common to both the voltage source and the electrical load. The other end of the source and load are connected to taps along the winding. Different taps on the winding correspond to different voltages, measured from the common end. In a step-down transformer the source is usually connected across the entire winding while the load is connected by a tap across only a portion of the winding. In a step-up transformer, conversely, the load is attached across the full winding while the source is connected to a tap across a portion of the winding.

As in a two-winding transformer, the ratio of secondary to primary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns of the winding they connect to. For example, connecting the load between the middle and bottom of the autotransformer will reduce the voltage by 50%. Depending on the application, that portion of the winding used solely in the higher-voltage (lower current) portion may be wound with wire of a smaller gauge, though the entire winding is directly connected.

3.3.7.MAX232
The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply TIA/EIA-232-Fvoltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts TIA/EIA-232-F inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels.These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V, a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V, and can accept ±30-V inputs.Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into TIA/EIA-232-F levels. The driver, receiver, andvoltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments LinASICä library.

Fig.3.13 MAX232
Features
Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V.28
Operates from a Single 5-V Power Supply With 1.0-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors
Operates up To 120 kbit/s
Two Drivers and Two Receivers
±30-V Input Levels
Low Supply Current . . . 8 mA Typical
ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22
2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)
Upgrade with Improved ESD (15-kV HBM) and 0.1-_F Charge-Pump Capacitors is
Available With the MAX202
Applications
TIA/EIA-232-F, Battery-Powered Systems, Terminals, Modems, and Computers
3.3.8.LCD 16 x 2
Liquid crystal display (LCD) which has been used is 2×16 LCD. I.e. two lines each with 16 characters. The LCD has been used in 8bit mode i.e. 8 data lines are required. Other than 8 data line one RS, one RW & one enable line is also required. The RS line is used to select whether the data or instruction is being transferred between the controller and the LCD. The RW line is used to indicate if data is read from the LCD or written into the LCD. The RW pin is pulled low when data is being sent to the LCD. The enable pin is basically a latch pin which tells the LCD that the data is available on the data lines. The resister R7 is used to set the intensity of the BACKLIGHT.

Fig.3.14 LCD display
Construction of LCD Module
The constructional diagram of LCD Module is as shown in fig
Fig.3.14 (a) Constructional Diagram of LCD ModuleVertical filter film to polarize the light as it enters.
Glass substrate with ITO electrodes. The shapes of these electrodes will determine the dark shapes that will appear when the LCD is turned on or off. Vertical ridges etched on the surface are smooth.
Twisted pneumatic liquid crystals.
Glass substrate with common electrode film (ITO) with horizontal ridges to line up with the horizontal filter.
Horizontal filter film to block/allow through light.
Reflective surface to send light back to viewer. (In a backlit LCD, this layer is replaced with a light source.)
LCD pin description
Table3.4 LCD pin description
Pin no. Symbol Function
01 Vss GND
02 Vdd Contrast adjustment
03 Vo H/L register select segment
04 RS H/L read write signal
05 R/W H To L enable signal
06 E H/L Data bus line
07 DB0 H/L Data bus line
08 DB1 H/L Data bus line
09 DB2 H/L Data bus line
10 DB3 H/L Data bus line
11 DB4 H/L Data bus line
12 DB5 H/L Data bus line
13 DB6 H/L Data bus line
14 DB7 H/L Data bus line
15 A/Vee +4.2V for LED/Negative voltage output
16 K Power supply for B/L (0V)

Fig.3.14 (b) Pin connection diagram of LCD Display
VCC, VSS and VEE
When VCC and VSS provide +5V and ground respectively, VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast.

RS (Register Select)
There are two very important registers inside the LCD. The RS pin is used for their selection as follows. If RS = 0, the instruction command code register is selected, allowing the user to send a command such as clear display, cursor at home, etc. If RS = 1 the data register is selected, allowing the user to send data to be displayed on the LCD.

R/W (Read/Write)
R/W input allows the user to write information to the LCD or read information from it. R/W = 1 when reading, R/W = 0 when writing.

E (Enable)
The enable pin is used by the LCD to latch information presented to its data pins. When data is supplied to data pins, a high – to – low pulse must be applied to this in order for the LCD to latch in the data present at the data pins. This pulse must be a minimum of 450 ns wide.

D0 – D7
The 8-bit data pins, D0 – D7 are used to send information to the LCD or read the contents of the LCD’s internal registers. To display letters and numbers; we send ASCII codes for the letters A – Z, a – z and numbers 0 – 9 to these pins while making RS = 1.

Features of LCD
5*8 dots with cursor.

Built-it controller(KS 0066 or equivalent)
+5V power supply (also available for +3V)
1/16 duty cycle
B/L to driven by pin1, pin2 or pin 15,pin 16 or A.K (LED)
N.V. optional for +3V power supply
3.3.9.Limit switch
This is a rugged, easy to use, highly reliable limit switch. It is also used as bump sensor in accident detection projects and also used in Mechanical based projects where you have to determine if the object has reached a specific location. It is also used in CNC machines ; 3D printer to detect if the part has reached the start or end point.

Features of Limit Switch
Technical Name: Limit Switch/Bump Switch
Dimension: 20 mm x 16 mm x 6.7 mm
Operating Temperature: -25 to +65
Operating Max Volt and Current: 5A 125V-3A 250V

Fig.3.15 limit switch
3.3.10.LM35 (Temperature Sensor)

Fig.3.16 LM35 Temperature Sensor
The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±1?4°C at room temperature and ±3?4°C over a full ?55 to +150°C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35’s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 ?A from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a ?55° to +150°C temperature range, while the LM35C is rated for a ?40° to +110°C range (?10° with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the
LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.

Features
Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade)
Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor
0.5°C accuracy guarantee (at +25°C)
Rated for full ?55° to +150°C range
Suitable for remote applications
Low cost due to wafer-level trimming
Operates from 4 to 30 volts
Less than 60 ?A current drain
Low self-heating, 0.08°C in still air
Nonlinearity only ±1?4°C typical
Low impedance output, 0.1 W for 1 mA load
3.3.11.PT (Potential Transformer)

Fig.3.17 Potential Transformer
Potential transformer or voltage transformer gets used in electrical power system for stepping down the system voltage to a safe value which can be fed to low ratings meters and relays. Commercially available relays and meters used for protection and metering, are designed for low voltage. This is a simplest form of potential transformer definition.

Fig.3.17(a) Potential Transformer
Ratio
The PT is typically described by its voltage ratio from primary to secondary. A 600:120 PT will provide an output voltage of 120 volts when 600 volts are impressed across its primary winding. Standard secondary voltage ratings are 120 volts and 70 volts, compatible with standard measuring instruments.

Burden and accuracy
Burden and accuracy are usually stated as a combined parameter due to being dependent on each other.Metering style PTs are designed with smaller cores and VA capacities than power transformers. This causes metering PTs to saturate at lower secondary voltage outputs saving sensitive connected metering devices from damaging large voltage spikes found in grid disturbances.

Fig.3.17(b) Potential Transformer
A small PT (see nameplate in photo) with a rating of 0.3W, 0.6X would indicate with up to W load (12.5 watts ) of secondary burden the secondary current will be within a 0.3 percent error parallelogram on an accuracy diagram incorporating both phase angle and ratio errors. The same technique applies for the X load (25 watts) rating except inside a 0.6% accuracy parallelogram.Markings
Some transformer winding primary (usually high-voltage) connecting wires are of many types. may be labeled as H1, H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally designed to be grounded) and X1, X2 and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1, Y2, Y3) (and third (Z1, Z2, Z3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The primary may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. The secondary is usually grounded on one terminal to avoid capacitive induction from damaging low-voltage equipment and for human safety.

Types of PTs

Fig.3.17 (c)Simplified circuit diagram of a CVT
There are three primary types of potential transformers (PT): electromagnetic, capacitor, and optical. The electromagnetic potential transformer is a wire-wound transformer. The capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) uses a capacitance potential divider and is used at higher voltages due to a lower cost than an electromagnetic PT. An optical voltage transformer exploits the Faraday Effect, rotating polarized light, in optical materials.

3.3.12. CT (Current Transformer)
Current transformers (CT’s) provide a simple, inexpensive and yet accurate means of sensing current flow in power conductors. They are available in 3 basic configurations:
1. Ring Core CT’s are available for measuring currents from 50 to 5000 amps, with windows (power conductor opening size) from 1″ to 8″ diameter.

2. Split Core CT’s are available for measuring currents from 100 to 5000 amps, with windows in varying sizes from 1″ by 2″ to 13″ by 30″. Split core CT’s have one end removable so that the load conductor or bus bar does not have to be disconnected to install the CT.

3. Wound Primary CT’s are designed to measure currents from 1 amp to 100 amps. Since the load current passes through primary windings in the CT, screw terminals are provided for the load and secondary conductors. Wound primary CT’s are available in ratios from 2.5:5 to 100:5 (Models 189 and 190 are examples of wound primary CT’s). CT’s used with watt transducers CT’s are designed to handle relay inrush currents, so no extra precaution is needed to monitor relay.

Parallel CT inputs method is used at the input.

This method would require:
1. Balanced loads,
2. Same ratio CT’s,
3. Paralleling at transducer only,
4. Grounding at transducer only,
5. Burden capability to be reduced by the number of CT’s (e.g., 3 CT’s give 1/3 capability),
6. CT’s to be oversized so the total secondary current does not exceed the 5 amp rating, which reduces accuracy.
Since this method requires ideal conditions, it is generally better to use a summing transformer.

A CT is most accurate at rated current with a low burden (load). Accuracy decreases with increased burden (load) or low line current. In sizing CT’s the conductor size and distance is important. Improper sizing of current transformers or long secondary conductor runs with undersized cable can result in poor accuracy. CT’s are inexpensive, accurate devices for monitoring current. If properly sized and installed, they will give many years of trouble free service with no adjustments to make.

3.3.13. Buzzer
This is a small PCB (printed circuit board) mountable buzzer. Its small size makes it perfect for all types of DIY and breadboard projects as well as actual electronics production.

This Buzzer module emits really loud sound when 3V to 5V is applied to it.  Unlike a plain piezo, this buzzer does not need an AC signal. Inside is a piezo plus the driver circuitry that makes it oscillate at 2 KHz. On one hand, that makes it really great for integrating into projects because you don’t need an oscillating control signal. But On the other hand, you cannot change the frequency.

Fig.3.18 buzzer
Features of Buzzer
Tone Type: single
Operating Voltage: 4.5-5.5Vdc
Rated Voltage: 5V DC
Current Consumption: 50mA
Osc. Frequency: 2.3kHz±0.4
Sound Level: 85dB
Connector Type: PCB
Body Color: black
Weight: 3gm
Power supply design

Fig3.19 Circuit diagram of power supply
Transformer:
Min input for 7805 is
=Drop acreoss IC 7805+Required Output Voltage
=3V+5V
=8V
So at Input of 7805we required 8V with margin
Consider drop across diode 0.7V so 2 diode conducts drop is 1.4V
=1.4V+8V
=9.4V
So at secondary we required 10V
Rectifier Design:
Vrms=Vac=9.18V
Vm=sqrt(2)xVrms
=sqrt(2)x9.18
PIV rating of diode=12.98V
Vdc=2*Vm/1.44=8.27V
Average current through diode=(Idc+0.25Idc)
=500mA(1+0.25)
=625mA
The TUF is increased to 0.812 as compared to FWR.

The PIV across each diode is the peak voltage across the load =Vm not 2Vm as in the two diode rectifier.

So according this ratings we have selcted BY 127 diode which is equivalent to 1N4007 diode.

mer having turns ratio 25:1 we have selected
Filter Design (capacitor design):
RC=Vdc/Idc
=8.27/500×10-3
Let ripple factor=0.12V
C=2900/(RIxRF)
=(2900)/(16.54×0.12)
=961uF
So select the standard capacitor of 1000uF.

To avoid ripples in output select another 10uF capacitor
VOLTAGE SENSING:
LM324 is an operational amplifier
In voltage sensing block we are going to design level shifting circuit which will shift the voltage level by about 2.5V


Fig 3.20 Voltage sensing circuit
CURRENT SENSING:
As the ADC understands only voltage at its input so we are going to design I to V converter circuit.

Fig 3.21 Current sensing circuit
3.4Software Design
3.4.1Modern Tools used
1.ALTIUM:

Snap3.1 Altium software
Altium Limited is an Australian owned public software company that provides PC-based electronics design software for engineers. Founded in Tasmania, Australia 1985, Altium now has regional headquarters in Australia, China, United States, Europe, and Japan, with resellers in all other major markets. The company was known as “Protel” until 2001.

2.Keil software 3.0:
Keil was founded in 1982 by Günter and Reinhard Keil, initially as a German GbR. In April 1985 the company was converted to Keil Electronic GmbH to market add-on products for the development tools provided by many of the silicon vendors. Keil implemented the first Ccompiler designed from the ground-up specifically for the 8051 microcontroller.

Keil provides a broad range of development tools like ANSI C compiler, macro assemblers, debuggers and simulators, linkers, IDE, library managers, real-time operating systems and evaluation boards for Intel 8051, Intel MCS-251, ARM, and XC16x/C16x/ST10families.

In October 2005, Keil (Keil Elektronik GmbH in Munich, Germany, and Keil Software, Inc. in Plano, Texas) were acquired by ARM.
3. Proteus 8
Proteus 8 is a best simulation software for various designs with microcontroller. It is mainly popular because of availability of almost all microcontrollers in it.so it is a handy tool to test programs and embedded design for electronics hobbyist.we can simulate programming of microcontroller in proteus 8 simulation software,after simulating circuite we can directly make PCB design.

Schematic drawing:
Drawing the schematic is very easy using Proteus. You can click the “Pick devices” button and select the desired component. You can draw wires by clicking on the terminal of the component or Vcc, Ground, etc. 
Simulation: We can test circuit using Proteus’s simulation feature. Many of the components in Proteus can be simulated. There are two options for simulating: Run simulator and advance frame by frame. The “Run simulator” option simulates the circuit in a normal speed (If the circuit is not heavy). “Advance frame by frame” option advances to next frame and waits till you click this button for the next time. This can be useful for debugging digital circuits.We can also simulate microcontrollers. The microcontrollers which can be simulated include PIC24, dsPIC33, 8051, Arduino, ARM7 based microcontrollers. You can download the compilers for Proteus or use different compiler and dump the hex files in the microcontroller in Proteus. You can even interact in real-time with the simulation using switches, resistors, LDRs, etc. There are even virtual voltmeter, ammeter, oscilloscope, logic analyzer,etc.Designing PCB:Designing PCBs are easy using Proteus. We can make your own design or let Proteus do that for you. Making your own design is simple, you just have to place the components used in the schematic and draw traces over them. Don’t worry about violating any design rules because it automatically detects design rule (DRC) errors. You can also let Proteus do the work for you. You can place the components on their respective places and select the “auto route” option. This will automatically draw multiple variations of traces and selects the best one. There is also an “Auto placer” option present; this option needs you to specify the board dimensions by drawing the shape and size of the board so that, it can place the components within the board boundaries. So, all you have to do is to make the schematic.3D visualization: 
. The 3D visualization feature virtually creates a 3D model of the PCB.We can use this to verify whether it will look like We imagined.

Bill of Materials: you can use Proteus 8 professional’s “Bill of materials” feature. You just have to specify the cost of each of components. After specifying the cost for all items, Proteus automatically makes a list of all components used with their individual price and total price.

Pros and cons
Pros:You can interact with the running simulation, using switches, etc.

Virtual electronic measurement instruments are available.

Cons:User interface could have been made better.

Proteus features:
Reduces life-cycle and support cost associated with business intelligence through an easy-to-easy template-based configuration that eliminate the need for specialized development or hard coding,allowing for rapid deployment and almost immediate ROI
Integrate data from disparate system into a consolidated view that can be aggregated at all levels for stakeholders within and across the program team and the enterprise.The stakeholders can drill down into the data and summarize the data at will to quickly identify problems and trends.

.

Watchdog alerts for any data element allowing decision makers to manage by expectation and create an early warning system for any significant metric or conduction .

A content rich solution,providing as a option the use of an interative organization spred sheet style view,gantt charting and a choice of suprim post charts,graph,gauges to provide visualization of key data
Provide the ability to analyze data using completion reporting,were by time phase data such as schedule activities,mile stone etc should be visualize in one view to determine programmatic in consistencies and poor performance.

An interactive and real time anylaticle environment,allowing user to apply a wide range of selection against the underlined the data to visual property(colour,tranperancy,front style,and more) in the gantt grid,gauges or chart to quickly spot anomalies or tend in project performance using virtual cues.

Export to pdf ,excel,power point or html.

Extends and add capability legacy and resistance system with update table colums ehich is then saved and usable on the repeatable
Provides a single point entry environment for multiple disparate applications regardless of geographic dispersal.The application,in order to support our security model,must be able to inherit the underlying security setting from the source data and be able to add additional levels of security
4. Serial Communication Checker Ver 3.73
RS232 test software is a utility for monitoring and analyzing activity of serial ports.collecting such data is crucial when developing application ,drivers and devices.it helps identifying potential problems,so we can solve them right from the beginning.The main functionality of RS232 test software is to capture and display data transmitted via serial ports of your computer.also ,this serial port testing software offers additional functionality such as built in terminal,advanced filtering,search and enables exporting collected data in a required format
User friendly interface and intuitive navigation are additional bonuses of this serial port test software is required for this serial port testing tool
Advantages
Collect and record data
Even if the serial ports are being in use,RS232 tester software can connect to them and start monitoring their activity immediately.data received will be displayed in the com port test program in the real time mode.

Monitor multiple ports at a time
This COM port testing software is capable of monitoring multiple ports simultaneously.for easier analysis all data is logged in a single file on a first in first out basis.

View data in a convenient way
There are 4 view modes to present recorded serial data table,line,dump and terminal,check which one suits you better .make use of convenient monitoring filters offered by RS232 testing software to see only relevant events.

Simulate sending data to serial ports
Terminal mode features of RS232 test software enables you simulate sending data to serial ports.The ports will take it as if it was sent on behalf of the application or device being monitored .The software supports string ,binary,octal,decimal,hexadecimal and mixed data formats.This is a really efficient way to see how certain commands affect devices and applications
Playback and session comparison
With RS232 tester software ,there the possibility of getting a unique session playback.its possible to send all data received from the app back to the opportunity to analyze ports behaviour as it receive the same data for more accurate monitoring results.

3.4.2Algorithms
Start.

Initialize LCD.

Display on LCD “Welcome to solenoid relay testing jig”.

Adjust 185 V and press enter key.

If enter key is pressed then pick up test starts else wait for key pressed.

Display voltage on LCD. If voltage is 185 pickup test passed if no pick up test failed.

Display on LCD pick up test completed.
Press enter to start current test.
If enter key is pressed then current test starts else wait for key pressed.

Read current and display on LCD. If 0.1;current;0.4 then current test is passed else failed and display on LCD.

Display current test completed.

Press enter to start temperature test.

If enter key is pressed then temperature test starts else wait for key pressed
Read temperature and display on LCD. If temperature;650 C then test passed else failed.

Display on LCD that temperature test completed.

Press enter to start drop out test. Adjust 75 V and press enter key.

If enter key is pressed then drop out test starts else wait for key pressed.

Display voltage on LCD. If voltage is 75V drop out test passed if no pick up test failed.

Display on LCD all tests completed and send data result on PC.

3.4.3Flowchart

Fig.3.22 flowchart
3.5PCB Design and Layout

Fig.3.23 Process flow for PCB Designing
3.5.1Introduction to PCB:
Printed circuit boards may be covered in two topics; technology and design. Printed circuit boards are called PCB in short. Printed circuit consists of conductive circuit pattern applied to one or both sides of an insulation base, depending upon that ,it is called single side PCB or double sided PCB(SSB and DSB).Conductor materials like silver, brass, aluminum and copper are most widely used. The thickness of the conducting material depends upon the current carrying capacity of circuit. Thus a thicker copper layer will have more current carrying capacity.

The printed circuit board usually serves three distinct functions:
It provides mechanical support for the components mounted on it.

It provides necessary electrical interconnections.

It acts as a heat sink that is it provides a conduction path leading to removal of most of the heat generated in the circuit.

3.5.2Manufacturing process of printed circuit board

Fig.3.24 Manufacturing Process of Printed Circuit Board
The conductor pattern which is on the master film is transferred on copper clad laminate by two methods:
Photo resists printing.

Screen printing.

1)Photo resists printing
Photopolymer resist is a light sensitive organic material like KPR (Kodak Photo Resist) which is applied to the board as thin film. The photo resist when exposed to ultraviolet light hardens or polymerizes. Once it is polymerized, it becomes insoluble to certain chemical solvents known as developers.
The developer dissolves the portion which is masked or which is not exposed to light. Thus the pattern that is to be drawn on PCB is derived from the artwork which is photographic process. This is transferred to a master film on 1:1 scale. This can be reduced to any small size thus miniaturization is possible. The pattern is transferred to a mask. This mask is kept on PCB. The whole process is known as Image Transfer.

The unpolymerized or masked portion is washed away in developer leaving wanted copper pattern on board KPR or photo resist is then removed.

Requirements of photo resists
It should have good resolution and light sensitivity.

It should be resistant to developers which are used to remove unwanted copper.

It should have possibility to strip after unwanted copper is removed.

Its cost must be less.

Photo resist is normally applied by:
Flow coating OR
Roller coating OR
Dip coating OR
Spraying
3.5.3Screen printing

Fig.3.25 Screen printing
This technique is similar to the one used in printing industry. The copper foil is covered with printing ink where the conducting paths are going to be. The screen which is used for pattern is of either stainless steel or polymer mesh which is dimensionally accurate and fine mesh. The open meshes of screen correspond to the pattern.

PCB is placed under the screen. Printing ink is placed at one end of the screen, and by means of a rubber squeegee it is pushed through open meshes. Printed circuit board is then removed for drying. After drying board is washed in ferric chloride which acts as etchant. Etching is chemical process by which unwanted copper is removed. The portion which is covered by ink is not removed, that is the pattern remains intact. Later ink stripping is done with trichloroethylene.

3.5.4Protection of copper tracks
Copper when exposed to atmosphere for a long time gets tarnished and problems arise at the time of soldering.

The tracks can be protected by applying lacquer or varnish depending upon the thickness of the track. Copper is also protected by plating. There are three methods of plating.

Immersion plating
Electro less plating
Electroplating
Immersion plating utilizes tin and its alloys and gold. It is done by chemical replacement from coating material salt solution. This method is simple and less costly.

In electro less copper coating electric current is not used. Instead, a chemical reducing agent is used which supplies electrons for reaction in which copper is reduced from its ionic state.

In electroplating, a DC current is passed between two electrodes, and a thin coating is deposited on cathode when immersed in electrolyte.

3.5.5Etching
Removal of unwanted copper, to give final copper pattern is known as etching. Solutions which are used in etching are known as etchants.

Ferric chloride
Cupric chloride
Chromic acid
Alkaline ammonia
Out of these chemicals, ferric chloride is widely used because it has short etching time and it can be stored for a longer time. Rinsing follows etching.

3.5.6Solders and soldering techniques
Solders are special alloys which are used to get either a mechanically strong joint or electric joint of low contact resistance. Solders have low melting points compared to metals to be joined. Therefore when solder is heated, molten solder wets the metal, spreads and joints.

Any contamination on the surface of the metal to be joined acts as a paired and hampers the action of wetting.

Solders are divided into two groups, soft and hard. Soft solders have lower melting point and lower tensile strength. Soft solders are largely tin lead alloys and silver based compositions. Fluxes are auxiliary materials used while soldering is done.

They dissolve and remove oxides and contaminants from surface of metals to be soldered.

They protect the metal surface and molten solder from oxidation.

They reduce the surface tension of molten solder.

They improve the ability of solder to wet the metal.

Active or acid fluxes: they are prepared on the basis of active substances, such as hydrochloric acid, chlorides and fluorides of metals, etc. these fluxes intensively dissolve oxide films on the metal surface and thus make for better adhesion of the solder to the base metal, the residue must be thoroughly removed after soldering
Active fluxes are not used in soldering the circuit wires of radio devices.

Acid –free fluxes: these are rosin and rosin base material with the addition of inaction substances such as alcohol and glycerin.

Activated fluxes: these include rosin base fluxes containing activating agents in small quantities, such as hydrochlorides and phosphates of aniline, salicylic acid and hydrochlorides of diethyl amine. A high activity of some of these fluxes makes the preliminary removal of oxides after degreasing unnecessary.

Fig.3.26 Layout
3.6Noise immunity of system ; environment related aspects
Calibration is required
When we conduct the pickup and drop up test atmosphere temperature should be 25o Celsius
Calibration is requirement after few months for instruments
Protection cover is required for solenoid relay for environmental conditions
Testing jig is required cleaning and maintenance for certain period
The main component is limit switch and stand.

CHAPTER 4
TEST PROCEDURE AND RESULTS
4.1Testing
Testing is nothing but the physical checking of the all components and all possible condition to avoid problem in the circuit functioning.

Testing done with so many checking instruments as per the circuit requirement and conditions
4.1.1BARE BOARD TESTING
In bare board testing we should have to check the following points
Continuity of the track
Over etching or under etching if any
Shorts if any
VCC and GND tracks
4.1.2Trouble Shooting
After the PCB is prepared the conductivity test is carried out. First pin-to-pin conductivity is checked. The necessary IC interconnections are also checked. The resistance value of all the resistor are checked and then completed with the value denoted by color-coding is done.

The capacitors are also checked to see whether they are working or short or open. The diodes are tossed for priority. The diodes are cracked for their forward resistance and reverse resistance. After carrying out all the possible testing, the jumper wires are also tested for conductivity.

4.2Simulation Results
When pickup test is going on
1)

Snap 4.1 Pick up test simulation
2)

Snap 4.1(a) Pick up test simulation
3)

Snap 4.1(b) Pick up test simulation
Temperature of coil over time

Graph 4.1 Temperature of Coil over Time
This graph is the analysis done by the company called ABB on solenoid relay. When solenoid relay is not connected to the circuit its temperature would be around 30°C.When it is connected to the circuit its temperature will go on increasing gradually for the first 1-1:30hrs. At that time its around 64°C. If it temperature does vary more than 2°C-4°C then we can say that it has passed the temperature test. If it goes beyond that then we can conclude that test has failed.

Analysis of solenoid relay done by ABB
Test Specified Obeservation
Pick up voltage Nil 65V
Dropout voltage Nil 15V
Continuous current Nil 0.11A
Power consumption Nil 12.1W
Table4.1 Analysis of solenoid relay done by ABB
4.3 Results
1) Pick up test

Snap 4.1 Pick up test on hardware

Snap 4.1(a) Pick up test on hardware
2)voltage dropout test pass

Snap 4.2 Voltage drop out test on hardware

Snap 4.3 Results on PC
3) Pickup test failed

Snap 4.4 failure of Pick up test

Snap 4.5 Results on PC
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
5.1 Advantages
Automatic Timer Start ; Stop.

Time Can Display On LCD.

If test fail Buzzer will ON ; If Pass Green LED ON.

LCD indicates Status of test as well as Time in Sec.

LCD also Show Temperature of Coil.

Current ; Voltage also Show on LCD
All Data will send on PC.
5.2 Applications
Used in Starter:
When we turn the key it sends power to the solenoid and it activates a magnet which closes the circuit to the starter, and it then turns your engine over.

Fig 5.1 Automobile starter circuit
Solenoids are used in: Electrically operated locking mechanisms, electrically controlled valves.

5.3 Conclusion
Numbers of tests are carried out to demonstrate that the product is safe when used for itsintended application.Modern test sets is capable of testing the functionality of a wide variety of relays, and conducting a set of tests automatically such sets ease the task of the commissioning engineer. All results should be carefully noted and stored for record purposes. Departures fromthe expected results must be thoroughly investigated and the cause determined.Relay inputs are tested over the specified ranges. Inputs include those for auxiliaryvoltage, VT, CT, frequency, optically isolated digital inputs and communicationcircuits.The test results can then be audited and used for decision making with respect to systemintegration and to avoid relay problems in the future.

5.4 Future scope
On further modification multiple test can conduct for relay .

Different relays can be tested by integrating system.

System can be made fully automated.

REFERENCES
Books
1 “Let Us C -Fifth Edition” ,Yashavant P. Kanetkar
2 “Principles of electronics ” ,v.k.mehta
3 “The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded SystemsUsing Assembly”, Muhammad Ali Mazidi,
Janice GillispieMazidi , Rolin D. McKinlay
5 “Microelectronics Circuit and Devices” by Mark N. Horenstein, PHI Publication (2nd Edition), 2005.

6 “Power Electronics” by B. R. Gupta and V. singhal, S. K. Khataria and Sons publication (5th Edition) 2005-06.

Research Papers
1 International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 2, Issue 3, March 2013
2 Matthew J. Zieniewicz, Douglas C. Johnson, Douglas C. Wong, and John D. Flat ?The Evolution of Army Wearable Computers Research, Development and engineering center, US Armu communication October–December 2002.
3 M. A. Green, S. P. Virostek, and M. S. Zisman “The Results of Recent MICE Superconducting
Spectrometer Solenoid Tests”, IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, vol. 21, no. 3, june 2011
4Yuye Wang1,2, Fengling Han2,Wei Xiang1, Guangrui Xu1″ The Electromagnetic Relay Test System Based on TMS320F28335″, 1 College of Information and Communication Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China. 2 School of Computer Science and Information Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia,2013
5 H. J. Liu, X. F. Liu, F. Liu, Y. Wu, B. Liu, Q. W. Hao, and S. Guo, “Test Results for the East Central Solenoid Model Coil”, IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, vol. 23, no. 3, june 2013
6 Roger Rabehl, Ruben Carcagno, Shlomo Caspi, Allan DeMello, Lidija Kokoska, Darryl Orris,
Heng Pan, Cosmore Sylvester, and Michael Tartaglia, “Thermal and Mechanical Performance of
the First MICE Coupling Coil and the Fermilab Solenoid Test Facility”, IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, vol. 25, no. 3, june 2015
APPENDIX A: Course Detail Sheet for project
APPENDIX B: Circuit Schematic

Fig.A circuit diagram of solenoid relay testing system
Voltage sensing:
LM324 is an operational amplifier
In voltage sensing block we are going to design level shifting circuit which will shift the voltage level by about 2.5V

Fig.B voltage sensing circuit
Current sensing:

Fig.C current sensing circuit
As the ADC understands only voltage at its input so we are going to design I to V converter circuit.

Fig.D circuit diagram of relay
APPENDIX C:Bill of Material
Table: A Component Cost
Comment Pattern Quantity Components Cost
0.01uF RAD0.1 2 C10, C11 8
0.1uF RAD0.1 4 C3, C7, C8, C12 16
1000uF/40V RB.2/.4 1 C1 8
10K AXIAL0.4 1 R20 1
10K VR5 3 P1, P4, P5 3
10K 9 PIN SIP9 3 RP3, RP4, RP2 15
10K PRESET 1 TURN VR4 1 P6 20
10uF RB.1/.2 3 C2, C9, C16 24
16 PIN RELYMATE SIP16 1 LCD CONNECTOR1 25
1K AXIAL0.4 13 R1, R2, R3, R4, R8, R9, R13, R21, R22, R23, R31, R34, R35 13
1uF B.1/.2 4 4 C6, C13, C14, C15 32
22E AXIAL0.4 1 R12 1
22K AXIAL0.4 4 R25, R26, R27, R28 4
11.059MHz XTAL1 1 X13 30
28 PIN ICBASE DIP28 1 IC3 50
2PIN PHOENIX CON2(POW) 3 CON1, CON3, CON10 30
33pF RAD0.1 2 C4, C5 8
4.7K AXIAL0.4 7 R5, R18, R19, R24, R29, R30, R36 28
40 PIN IC BASE DIP40 1 IC1 50
5V RELAY SPDT PCB_RLY 4 RELAY1, RELAY2, RELAY3, RELAY4 100
BC337 TO-92A 4 Q2, Q4, Q6, Q8 40
BC557 TO-92A 4 Q1, Q3, Q5, Q7 40
BUZZER BZ20S 1 B1 16
Total 562
APPENDIX D:Paper presented in journals /conference
APPENDIX E: Certificate of Paper Presentation/Project Competition.
APPENDIX F: Report for Plagiarism Check
APPENDIX G: Data sheets(special)
APPENDIX H: Rubrics for Project Phase-I and Phase-II