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Artificial intelligence was a term coined by John McCarthy

Artificial intelligence was a term coined by John McCarthy, a Dartmouth math professor, in 1955 (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2018). Moreover, artificial intelligence is the intelligence demonstrated by machines, where machines mimic the human mind or the cognitive functions of humans. In fact, AI is subdivided into several fields, depending on where it is applied (Ghosh, 2016). Overall, the applications of AI in the field of manufacturing include those that involve robots in factories and even more.
Robotics. In the field of manufacturing, artificial intelligence is applied in the form of robots and robotic parts. In fact, manufacturing is a field where AI has been thoroughly applied ever since. Moreover, robots are the main factors in the manufacture of raw materials and electronic products (Rastogi, 2012). This means that AI is the way to manufacture and assemble goods with machines and engines like the automobile and many sorts of electronic equipment. AI through robot factory workers is responsible for the manufacture of these things as well their spare parts and raw materials (Rastogi, 2012).
The robots that have been programmed by AI to assist and to carry out manufacturing tasks are basically those that can be programmed to perform human tasks. In fact, 10000 robots have been used in Foxconn in China in order to offset the rising costs of labor in the country (Ghosh, 2016). This means that AI is the solution to the rising costs of the salaries of paid human workers in China and in many other countries that use robots as factory workers. The manufacturing company does not have to pay robots, and so it can save on the costs of production. The human workers are replaced because the human workers have to be paid and can be costly.
Moreover, these robots that have been programmed by AI have an intelligence that is similar to that of humans. In fact, they both have the intelligence and the hard working capacity. In fact, the factory where the robots work is known as the intelligent factory. A smart factory, as they are often called, is made up of robots and machines that are intelligent, highly integrated and are created with their own engines. In fact, the perfect model of an intelligent factory is one with a Production Execution Supervisor whose job is to get order data coming from customers. Then, this supervisor will then use software and other forms of technology such as 3D printing technologies to design the new units. They will then test this new part in terms of hours. It is also AI that spots defects in the system or part. Once a defect is spotted, then the whole process repeats. In fact, this type of factory is being used by Procter & Gamble. Smart manufacturing tools and software will be in great demand in 2018 with a projected worth of $250B (Ghosh, 2016).
Intricate and Complex Products. One of the products that result from manufacturing conducted by AI robots is intricate and complex ones. In fact, only these robots can handle the job, and even humans have to use machines and robots to accomplish these tasks and create these complex products. These products include self-driving cars. These cars collect data. Moreover, there are many automated products. These products are a result of AI, and their complexity cannot be handled by human workers without the assistance of robots, machines and other forms of technology (McKinsey & Company, 2017). That is how indispensable robots and AI are when it comes to the manufacturing industry. In short, there are some things that humans cannot do but robots can.
Moreover, another feature of AI robots is speed. This speed cannot be equaled by human capability. This is applied in certain areas of manufacturing such as microscopic assembly (Dorfman, 2018). This means that an AI robot can assemble machines and goods faster than any human being can. Although these robots have specific tasks, the not-so-good thing about them is that they have been programmed to do only one thing. Moreover, these robots cannot work closely together with humans (Dorfman, 2018). In short, robots exist in the world of artificial intelligence and in the real world because they can do things that an average human being cannot possibly do. This is used to make the best products and equipment that are beyond the human capacity to make. In fact, Japan is now planning to make 30 million robots in order to make Japan the number one manufacturer in the world again (Advanced MP Technology, 2018). This is very useful when it comes to producing the most high-demand products. The only way to boost speed of production is the use of robotic human workers. This cannot be done through any other means that would require human workers.
Advanced Manufacturing. With artificial intelligence, there is a CAD system. There is a promising operation plan that incorporates constraints and parameters. Through feedback, there is a plan that includes an evaluation plan and an evaluation for manufacturability (Srivastava, 2014). These plans are those that are not only about manufacturing the product but naturally sends signals to the manufacturer regarding the finished product. The evaluation will serve as a signal for the manufacturer to make a decision on what should be changed, fixed or improved in the present product.
Moreover, AI is very useful in the manufacturing industry because it accommodates the custom configuration of several products based on the individual requirements of customers (Dorfman. 2018). This means that through AI, the manufacturer can gather customer data and can pattern the products based on these customer specifications.
Aside from these, advanced manufacturing techniques using AI usually focus on devising objects that are usually better than the human senses. For example, there is the camera that is more sensitive than the human eye. There are also machine-vision tools that can see the smallest defects in certain products like circuit boards. This is seeing the circuit boards at specific resolutions that cannot be accommodated by the normal human vision. Moreover, it is also AI that can try to make sense of the images that it can see. This aspect belongs to precise quality analysis (Dorfman, 2018). This is not just useful for the customers themselves but also for those who are in charge of operating these electronic products or those who should fix them.
Improvement of Manufacturing with Knowledge. Artificial intelligence in the manufacturing industry is also useful in the fields of enterprise integration, enterprise resource and open data and analytics. These aspects of the manufacturing industry are useful added features to the manufactured product (Srivastava, 2014). This means that every product in the manufacturing industry that is made by AI robots is actually a result of knowledge about AI itself. This knowledge is further used in order to constantly improve manufacturing techniques or the manufacturing process itself. This is essential in order to be able to have a more efficient way of manufacturing products and goods the next time around.
Autonomous and Assisted Intelligence. When one is using AI, one can actually avail of two things – autonomous intelligence or assisted intelligence. Only AI robots and additional software technology can give rise to gadgets that can make decisions on their own just like a human being (Rao, 2017).
When it comes to autonomous intelligence, this refers to systems that are enabled and programmed to make decisions on their own and without direct human participation. The AI robots that have been programmed to create and produce certain goods have autonomous intelligence. This is because these AI robots seem to have their own brain. Autonomous intelligence is also found in many automatic devices such as automatic trading in the stock market or certain robots that keep space stations, make bombing possible, and perform many tasks that are dangerous to people. Moreover, AI products and robots with automatic features are needed when working with harmful environments such as radiation facilities (Rao, 2017).
On the other hand, when it comes to assisted intelligence, this refers to algorithm that keeps people being efficient without any change in the way that the machine should work. Thus, assisted intelligence is seen in robots, automated assembly lines, process automation, ATM machines and other forms of automated software. This type of intelligence can actually be repetitive. Thus, one usually prefers assisted intelligence as an aspect of any process or system with repetitive actions such as receiving and processing customer orders. Thus, any AI product that can perform essential repetitive tasks actually demonstrate assisted intelligence (Rao, 2017).

Managerial Applications (2 pages)
When it comes to managerial applications in the field of manufacturing, AI has a lot of promising things to bring. For example, AI robots are actually used by many companies in order to run their facilities or even entire warehouses. These robots automatically order stocks when stocks are low. These robots have a built-in inventory function (Bughin et al., 2017). This means that AI can help in managerial tasks for manufacturing applications by making robots manage facilities and centers where manufacturing operations and processes are taking place.
Another way that AI can help in the managerial tasks is through the use of automated technology. One is through self-driving cars and even automatic navigation devices. There are also computers that can do things by themselves based on how they were programmed (Bughin et al., 2017). Thus, the automation of computers is one way through which AI can benefit managerial applications.
Another way by which AI can help perform managerial tasks is by designing machines that can do everything that normal human beings can. Through this, there is no need for a human being to manage and supervise the tasks that this machine will perform. This results in uninterrupted service for customers and more satisfying service and convenience for people (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2018).
Furthermore, the designing of equipment and robots that combine human skills and technology in order to be able to possess creativity and planning is another way through which AI can benefit the managerial aspect of any job (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2018).
Another application of AI in managerial tasks related to the manufacturing industry is the ability to interpret results. As long as an electronic gadget or machine can interpret the results or can interpret values such as temperature, pressure and many other quantitative data values, then that is very small (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2018).
AI in the manufacturing industry can also help promote financial progress for the company and the country itself. Just like in the United States and China, there is the ability of certain AI companies to be able to produce national strategic plans and non-stop production of goods. Thus, these AI companies are able to help in the money management of companies (Bughin et al., 2017). Moreover, AI companies can even take care of the country’s economic system (McKinsey ; Company, 2017). This means that AI companies can help manage the country economically.
However, when it comes to management, one challenge of AI in the manufacturing industry would be the need of computers for domain experts who can prepare and contextualize data and those who can possibly work with AI as well as AI experts. It means that these are retail analysts and engineers as well as accountants who are familiar with AI and who can work with AI operators and experts (Strategy Business, 2018).
One more challenge would be the possibility for more damaging cyberattacks. The more complex techniques and patterns related to machine learning and computers actually allow hackers to find possible vulnerabilities. The problem with every AI technique is that there are patterns that can be used by hackers as vulnerable ways to hacking (Strategy Business, 2018).
Another challenge is to have a different set of robots for every different task (Advanced MP Technology, 2018). This results in additional costs to the company. This can be solved through the invention of electronic gadgets and goods that can actually serve versatile functions.

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