INCOTERMSSubmitted By: Muhammad Fahim
Student ID: N01258772
Submitted to: Lawrence Mitchell
INCOTERMSSubmitted By: Muhammad Fahim
Student ID: N01258772
Submitted to: Lawrence Mitchell
History and Development of Incoterms
The development or introduction of term Incoterms introduced by ICC in early 1920’s. Group of industrialists, financiers and traders developed the trade standards to do business globally that would become known as the Incoterms.
The ICC (International Chamber of commerce) was created in 1919. The ICC saw the opportunity/need to create global system of rules for trading. In 1920, ICC conducted study for understanding of trade terms to help buyers and sellers in international trade. This study introduce 6 common trades’ terms in only 13 countries and then published the study results in 1923.
After first publish, in 1928, as second initial survey and improvement was done, more than 30 countries were expanded in the clarification of trade rules. After examine the finding and tested in 30 countries, finally the first version of the Incoterms was published in 1936. The six trade terms that were tested and examine in 1920 and 1928 includes FAS (Free alongside Ship), FOB (Free on Board), C&F (Carriage and Freight), Ex Ship and Ex Quay. The first version of Incoterms was issued in 1953. After trade increased in rail mode, the three new Incoterms of non-marine transport were examined and created. DCP (Delivered Costs Paid), FOR (Free on Rail) and FOT (Free on Truck) were added. As trade increased, two more trade rules were introduced DAF (Delivery at Frontier) and DDP (Delivery at destination) to overcomes delivery issues in international trade.
In 1974, due to raising trade in air transportation there was need to introduce Incoterms in air mode to solve trading issues. Thus 1974 ICC introduced new term of trade “FOB Airport” was introduced especially for air transport. In 1980, ICC introduced FRC (Free Carrier) for rise of container traffic. In late 1980’s ICC decided to completely revised all Incoterms that have been introduced in order to take on them to modern-day commercial practice. In 1990 new version were published in which transportation modes like FOR, FOT and FOB Airport were eliminated and introduce FCA (Free Carrier). In 1990 version, there 13 individual Incoterms. In 2000, ICC did modification in Incoterms and amended some customs clearance obligations in order to resolve issues in import and export in international trade.
2010 Incoterms is the current and final version of trade terms that companies are using now and it address almost all the issues of international trade. 2010 Incoterms edition merged D-family of rules by removing DAF, DES (Delivered Ex Ship), DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay) and DDU (Delivered Duty Paid) and added two new Incoterms: DAT (Delivered at Terminal) and DAP (Delivered at Place), reflections on the modern trade landscape. Incoterms 2010 came into effect in 2011. Currently companies using 11 Incoterms for trade internationally and also domestics. – EXW, FCA, CPT, CIP, DAT, DAP and DDP, FAS, FOB, CFR and CIF. CITATION IncotermRulesHistory l 1033 (Incoterm Rules History, 2018)
Role and Purpose of Incoterms
When we talking about International Trade, we are importing and exporting goods from different countries. We need to fulfill different countries requirements in order to trade in other countries. Incoterms plays an important role to make simple and effective for trader to do business internationally. Incoterms are important part of international trade but many business concern groups misunderstood it. Some people think Incoterms only related to freight charges like used for clarification of who will be responsible for various charges of international transportation from point of origin to point of destination. Incoterms are more than just deciding defining freight charges. Incoterms reduce the risks during shipments of goods/services. Its provide secure payment of goods, timely delivery schedules, reduced the cost and time by adopting standard rules of international trade all over the countries. It enables to protect the buyers and sellers from constant changes in shipping practices and countries terms and conditions. Incoterms rules are applied by governments, the legal authorities and the freight forwarders and are acceptable in all the countries of the world. CITATION flashglobal p /flashglobal l 1033 (2017, p. /flashglobal)In business especially global, people facing different language barriers and different implications and types of fees in different countries, sometime federal government. For example in some countries tariffs, fees, any other surcharges enforced by federal body and in some countries it imposed by local governments. By using Incoterms, companies eliminate all these limitations because Incoterms provide all parties same classifications of specific terms and conditions in trade agreement. Companies can reduce level of risk during freight of any mode transportation. The main purpose of developing Incoterms is trade will continuous without any difficulties across boarder. CITATION freightindustrytimes l 1033 (Mike Josypenko,Director of Special Projects | The Institute of Export, 2015)In international trade buyers and sellers choose Incoterms in order to clarify who will pay the cost of transportation, who part is loading or unloading of goods, who will bears the risk of loss/damage at any given point during international trading and which terms performed by particular parties. CITATION NeciainGeneralG l 1033 (Genera, 2012)Usually buyers and sellers reduces uncertainties or discrepancies of country-specific sales and transport contracts in Incoterms. This will effect on cost and liabilities of shipping freight between source and delivery destinations. Sellers facing minimal liabilities when using Group E Incoterms, which essentially transfer most responsibilities to buyers. Sometime it effect negatively on importer like in Group C Incoterms generally bare the buyers to inflated costs, because the seller bears the duties for giving freight and insurance costs, particularly if the exporter chooses to quote the final figure without detailing the individual entries for freight, insurance and currency fluctuation costs. Buyer accounting for an inventory of expensive shipments may experience delays as Incoterms do not cover the transfer of titles or ownership. This can be disappointing, because an inventory of expensive goods can help a business push down expenses and report higher income. CITATION ColeIngait l 1033 (Cole-Ingait, 2017)Incoterms Groups
ICC published Incoterms are recognized globally by all authorities and governments of every countries. Usually sometimes buyers and seller are unaware of the different trading practices in their particular countries, results in disputes and misapprehension. The integration of Incoterms in international sales agreements reduces this risk. Basically Incoterms is about costs, risks and responsibilities of a seller/exporter and buyer/importer. ICC developed 11 Incoterms and these are defining specific guidelines for particular issues depending on the choose of mode of transportation, departure, mode of payment or good delivery destination and buyer/seller agreement. The 11 Incoterms are classified into four main groups according to the first alphabets if every Incoterms.
International Commercial Terms, or Incoterms, were introduced to provide standard references for buyers’ and sellers’ freight, insurance and tax responsibilities in cargo transportation. E Group Incoterms define the departure term of trade like EXW (Ex works free carrier) Incoterms defines that seller is not responsible for any costs and risks, instead buyer is responsible for pays for the freight, insurance and for importation of goods and using any mode of transportation. F group Incoterms defines Shipment Terms – Main carriage unpaid like FCA (Free Carrier) explain that seller fulfills his responsibilities to delivery when he handed over the goods but all the freight charges, insurance and importation of goods are buyer obligation. Group C Incoterms related to Shipment Terms – Main carriage paid, seller not assuming risk of loss or damage of the goods after ship or consignment. Group D Incoterms define the arrival terms in which seller almost accept all the costs and risk to bring the goods to the country of destination. Carriage is organized by the seller. CITATION searates l 1033 (https://www.searates.com/reference/incoterms/, 2018)
Incoterms play significant role in international trade. It almost fulfill all the buyers and sellers requirement of trade include different modes of transportation. Incoterms clearly defines who is responsible for freights charges, insurance as well as pays for importation. These Incoterms almost answer all queries about cost, risk and transportation of goods. Both buyers and sellers follows the 11 Incoterms and agree on terms and condition and help traders (buyers and sellers) by understanding one another and making domestic and international trade. ICC continuous trying to do amendments in order to better accommodate both buyers and sellers. Without these Incoterms, it’s impossible to do trade internationally.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Cole-Ingait. (2017, 09 26). https://bizfluent.com/info-8660596-advantages-disadvantages-Incotermss.html. Retrieved 05 24, 2018, from https://bizfluent.com: https://bizfluent.com/info-8660596-advantages-disadvantages-Incotermss.html
Genera, N. i. (2012, 12 4). http://www.worldwidecargo.com/general/the-importance-of-Incotermss/. Retrieved 28 5, 2018, from http://www.worldwidecargo.com/general/the-importance-of-Incotermss/: http://www.worldwidecargo.com/general/the-importance-of-Incotermss/
https://flashglobal.com/blog/4-reasons-why-Incotermss-understanding-is-vital-for-a-undisrupted-global-supply-chain/. (2017, 03 11). Retrieved 05 28, 2018, from https://flashglobal.com: https://flashglobal.com/blog/4-reasons-why-Incotermss-understanding-is-vital-for-a-undisrupted-global-supply-chain/
https://iccwbo.org/resources-for-business/Incotermss-rules/Incotermss-rules-history/. (2018, 1 1). Retrieved 5 29, 2018, from www.iccwbo.org: https://iccwbo.org/resources-for-business/Incotermss-rules/Incotermss-rules-history/
Mike Josypenko,Director of Special Projects | The Institute of Export. (2015, 10 31). http://www.freight-online.co.uk/sectors/sea/opinions/importance-Incotermss%C2%AE-international-trade. (f. i. times, Producer, & http://www.export.org.uk/shop/Incotermssr-2010-training) Retrieved 05 25, 2018, from http://www.freight-online.co.uk: http://www.freight-online.co.uk/sectors/sea/opinions/importance-Incotermss%C2%AE-international-trade