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Drug Use and Work/School Performance

Drug Use and Work/School Performance. The use of drugs and alcohol is a serious workplace issue. However, the use of alcohol and drugs may have no direct effect on the person’s work, but if a person comes to work under the influence of drug substance or alcohol, this will certainly impair their performance and can lead to tem taking risks or putting others at risk.
According to the published journal entitled, “An Employer’s Guide to Workplace Substance Abuse: Strategies and Treatment Recommendations, that substance abuse costs the United States billions of dollars in expenditures for health care, workplace injuries, disability payments and productivity losses (Slavit et al, 2009). In addition, chronic or acute use of drugs may result in preoccupation with the immediate present, an impairment of short-term memory and other mental functions, impaired tracking ability in sensory and perceptual functions, adverse emotional and social development of children and adolescents, and impaired classroom performance (Tullis, 1991).
Another study by K.E Thomas ascertains that drugs can decrease cognitive operations, making it difficult for the youth to develop a functional set of values and ideals. Reduced cognitive efficiency also leads to poor academic performance and a resulting decrease in self-esteem, contributing to instability of the individual’s sense of identity. A study in Portugal found that there are workers who believe they can work with more precision and confidence if they drink a certain amount of wine (Pereira, 1993) which also supports a Canadian study that assessed the score of drug and alcohol problems in the workplace. According to the Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission summary report (1992), less than one in 16 persons reported using illicit drugs, mainly marijuana; in the past 12 months, among current drug users, 18 percent reported at least two personal problems associated with their drug use, while alcohol was the most frequently used substance.
It is also revealed that the risk factors for drug use often occur before entry into the workforce. The drug abuse problems of the community are, therefore, brought into the workplace. Thus the point of maximum benefit of prevention programmes may occur before or at the point of entry into the labour market. Employers can make major contributions to the prevention of drug abuse, helping themselves and the community in the process. Effective workplace initiatives to prevent drug abuse should begin in the community and be directed at young persons who are potential workers (Pereira, 1993).
However, drug use is significantly correlated with the more times that one lost a job during the past four years, losing a job in the past six months, increased trouble with job, increased vandalism at work, and increased seeking of support and advice from family and friends for a work problem (Newcomb).
That most organizations had dismissed employees due to drug-related reasons displaying low performance and absenteeism from work (Smith, 1993). On the other hand, there is a recurrent issue concerning workplace substance use and abuse is whether workers’ substance use should be a concern of employers, since some employers saw productive employment as incompatible with any illicit drug use, whether it takes place at the work site or elsewhere. That employer’s concern should be only with job performance and that the private lives of workers were not their business (Normand et al, 1994).
Nevertheless, it is emphasized that drug problems have a costly impact on the workplace as well as the community. Employers and workers alike are concerned about the consequences of drug and alcohol abuse, that alcohol and drug involvement in accidents, and the impact on such employment indicators as absenteeism, turnover, medical claims, safety risk and lost productivity, confirm that there are direct costs involved with drug or alcohol use in the workplace (Butler, 1993).
Consequently, drug abuse represents difficult problems among employers because they are under competitive pressure to increase output and market sales. At the same time, these employers must respond to critical human resource issues to continue in business which made them categorically say that Illicit drugs as well as alcohol and tobacco create significant problems in the workplace (United Nations International Drug Control Programme)

Demographic Profile
Age. That drug abuse occurs more frequently in young people than in other age groups. The age group with the highest frequency of drug use is often 18-35 years, although wide variation exists between countries (Pereira, 1993).
Based on the estimated age of individuals using drugs, that 1 out of 20 people between the ages of 15 and 64 years, used an illicit drug (World Drug Report, 2014).
According to the Household Survey on the Nature and Extent of Drug Abuse in the Philippines conducted by the Dangerous Drugs Board in partnership with the Philippine Normal University in 2012, the Philippines has a total of 1.3 million drug