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Erythropoiesis is a process of producing new and matured red blood cells through differentiation of the hemocytoblast

Erythropoiesis is a process of producing new and matured red blood cells through differentiation of the hemocytoblast (haemopoietic stem cells-HSC)1,2. These self- renewing stems cells proliferate and differentiate into another HSC and a committed progenitor, which can further differentiate into a specific cell lineage forming erythrocytes1,2. Red blood cells are vital for the transport of oxygen to various organs in the body2. To maintain the oxygen levels during hypoxia and anaemia, erythropoietin binds to a cellular receptor (Epo receptor) activating signalling pathways for generating red blood cells1,2. Epo receptor dimerises and phosphorylates due to the binding, which further activates JAK2 and STAT5 consecutively. STAT5 then dissociates and migrates to the nucleus stimulating the gene expression1. In addition to this RAS and ERK pathways also activate the gene expression for cell proliferation and differentiation3. Due to the activation of gene expression committed proerythroblast differentiates forming an erythroid with smaller cell size and a compact nucleus. In final stages of erythroid differentiation, the cells lose their organelles forming a reticulocyte. These immature red blood cells contain organelle fragments and are further converted into erythrocytes and are released into the capillaries1,2.