Blog

PETER DONALD MAGESA A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ADMINISTRATION

PETER DONALD MAGESA A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ADMINISTRATION, PLANNING AND POLICY STUDIES OF THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA 2017CERTIFICATION The undersigned certifies that he has read and hereby recommends for acceptance by the Open University of Tanzania a dissertation titled An Investigation of the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) on Community Secondary Schools Development in Tanzania A Study of implementation in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Education in Administration, Planning and Policy Studies of the Open University of Tanzania. . Dr. Evaristo A. Mtitu (Supervisor) Date COPYRIGHT No part of this dissertation may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission of the author or the Open University of Tanzania in that behalf. DECLARATION I, Peter Donald Magesa, do hereby declare that this dissertation is my own original work and that it has not been submitted and will not be presented to any other university for similar or any degree award. .. Signature Date DEDICATION This dissertation is dedicated to my wife Esther Barnabas and my children, Melkizedeki and Mercy for their love and continuous support. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost I thank the Almighty God for giving me the special gift of life and guiding my way throughout my lifetime to the completion of this work. There are many people who greatly influenced my graduate experience and without them this work could not have been accomplished. Since it is not easy to mention them all I express my sincere gratitude to all of them for their assistance and contribution. This dissertation could not have been successfully completed without the support from my entire family whose patience, understanding, encouragement and love gave me strength to accomplish my mission. Secondly, my sincere gratitude goes to my supervisor Dr. Evaristo A. Mtitu, who tirelessly encouraged and challenged me throughout the process of this research work. His valuable advice and guidance contributed and helped me to shape the dissertation to its current form. I am also very grateful to the entire administration of the Open University of Tanzania. My sincere gratitude is extended to the Municipal Education Officer for granting me permission to conduct research in Tabora municipality. Special thanks to Mr. Emmanuel S. Ndakama who helped me in proofreading this dissertation. Mr. Alphonce Mhozya the Headmaster of Kazehill secondary school for his encouragement towards my study. I would also like to thank the Regional Education Officer (REO), Headmasters/mistresses, teachers, students and parents who responded to my questionnaires and interview questions which yielded the data for this study. Lastly, my heartfelt thanks go to my parents the late farther Donald Magesa and mother Selina Magesa, my wife Esther for their encouragement and support towards my study. Furthermore I would not forget the contribution of my children Melkizedeki and Mercy in my postgraduate journey. ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to investigate the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) on Community Secondary Schools Development in Tabora municipality. The specific objectives of the study were to investigate stakeholders conception and experiences of Big Results Now initiative with respect to provision of secondary education in Tabora municipality to examine the level of implementation of Big Results Now initiative in the community secondary schools in Tabora municipality and find out ways of improving the implementation of Big Results Now initiative in the performance of secondary schools in Tabora municipality. The study involved 100 respondents drawn from five community secondary schools. The data were collected using a set of questionnaires, interview schedules and focus group discussion. The quantitative data were analyzed descriptively, in which frequencies and percentages were computed. In addition, the qualitative data were analyzed using content data analysis approach. The findings indicated that there is lack of understanding of the objectives of the BRN initiative among the majority of educational stake holders including teachers. Moreover, teachers were not involved in the plans to implement the BRN initiative whereas conditions in schools were also not supportive for the successful implementation of the BRN initiatives. On the ways of improving the implementation of the BRN initiative in Tabora municipality, teachers recommended, among others, that they should be trained on the objectives of implementing the initiatives as they are the cornerstone in making the initiative a success. Keywords Perceptions Achievement Community secondary schools Big Results Now Initiative TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o 1-3 h z u HYPERLINK l _Toc465969113 CERTIFICATION PAGEREF _Toc465969113 h ii HYPERLINK l _Toc465969114 COPYRIGHT PAGEREF _Toc465969114 h iii HYPERLINK l _Toc465969115 DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc465969115 h iv HYPERLINK l _Toc465969116 DEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc465969116 h v HYPERLINK l _Toc465969117 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PAGEREF _Toc465969117 h vi HYPERLINK l _Toc465969118 ABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc465969118 h viii HYPERLINK l _Toc465969118 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc465969118 h viiix HYPERLINK l _Toc465969119 LIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc465969119 h xiii HYPERLINK l _Toc465969120 LIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc465969120 h xiv HYPERLINK l _Toc465969121 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS PAGEREF _Toc465969121 h xv HYPERLINK l _Toc465969122 CHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc465969122 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969123 INRODUCTION AND THE NATURE OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc465969123 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969124 1.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc465969124 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969127 1.2 Background to the Study 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969127 1.3 Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc465969127 h 3 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969128 1.4 Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc465969128 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969129 1.4.1 General Objective PAGEREF _Toc465969129 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969130 1.4.2 Specific Research Objectives PAGEREF _Toc465969130 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969131 1.5 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc465969131 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969132 1.7 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc465969132 h 5 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969132 1.8 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc465969132 h 5 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969132 1.8.1 Limitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc465969132 h 5 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969132 1.8.2 Delimitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc465969132 h 5 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969133 1.9 Conceptual Framework of the Study 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969134 1.10 Definitions of the Key Terms PAGEREF _Toc465969134 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969135 1.10.2 Big Results Now Initiative (BRN) PAGEREF _Toc465969135 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969136 1.10.3 Community Secondary Schools PAGEREF _Toc465969136 h 8 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969137 1.10.4 Investigation PAGEREF _Toc465969137 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969138 1.11 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc465969138 h 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969139 CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc465969139 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969140 LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc465969140 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969141 2.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc465969141 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969142 2.2 Challenges facing education sector PAGEREF _Toc465969142 h 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969143 2.3 Implementation /Practice of BRN initiatives in the community secondary schools PAGEREF _Toc465969143 h 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969145 2.4 Stakeholders conception regarding BRN intiatives in community secondary schools PAGEREF _Toc465969145 h 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969146 2.5 Ways of improving the Implementation of Big Result Now( BRN) PAGEREF _Toc465969146 h 14 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969147 2.6 Research gap PAGEREF _Toc465969147 h 16 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969148 2.7 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc465969148 h 16 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969149 CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc465969149 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969150 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc465969150 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969151 3.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc465969151 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969152 3.2 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc465969152 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969152 3.3 Research Approach PAGEREF _Toc465969152 h 18 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969153 3.4 Area of the Study PAGEREF _Toc465969153 h 19 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969154 3.5 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc465969154 h 19 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969154 3.6 Sample and Sampling Techniques PAGEREF _Toc465969154 h 19 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969155 3.7 Methods of Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc465969155 h 21 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969156 3.7.1 Questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc465969156 h 21 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969157 3.7.2 The Interview PAGEREF _Toc465969157 h 21 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969158 3.8 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc465969158 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969158 3.9 Ethical Considerations PAGEREF _Toc465969158 h 22 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969159 3.10 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc465969159 h 23 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969160 CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc465969160 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969161 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS PAGEREF _Toc465969161 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969162 4.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc465969162 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969164 4.2 Stake holders Conception and Experiences of Big Results Now initiative with Respect to Provision of Secondary Education in Tabora Municipality PAGEREF _Toc465969164 h 24 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969167 4.3 The challenges of the BRN Initiative PAGEREF _Toc465969167 h 27 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969170 4.4 Ways of Improving the Implementation of BRN Initiative in Tabora municipality PAGEREF _Toc465969170 h 30 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969172 4.1.1 Accountability of Teachers PAGEREF _Toc465969172 h 31 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969173 4.1.2 Involvement of teachers in the Plans to Implement the BRN Initiative PAGEREF _Toc465969173 h 32 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969174 4.5 Summary of the Chapter PAGEREF _Toc465969174 h 32 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969175 CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc465969175 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969176 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc465969176 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969177 5.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc465969177 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969178 5.2 Study Summary PAGEREF _Toc465969178 h 33 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969179 5.3 Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc465969179 h 35 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969181 5.4 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc465969181 h 36 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969182 5.4.1 Recommendation for Policy Action PAGEREF _Toc465969182 h 36 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969183 5.4.2 Recommendations for Practice PAGEREF _Toc465969183 h 36 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969184 5.4.3 Recommendations for Further studies PAGEREF _Toc465969184 h 37 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969185 5.7 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc465969185 h 37 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969186 REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc465969186 h 39 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969187 APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc465969187 h 46 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969114 Appendix I Questionnaire the Municipal Education Officers 46 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969114 Appendix II Questionnaire to Parents (in Kiswahili) 49 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969114 Appendix III Questionnaire for Heads of Schools 51 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969114 Appendix IV Questionnaire for Teachers 55 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969114 Appendix V Questionnaire for Students 58 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969114 Appendix VI Interview Guide for Selected respondents 60 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969114 Appendix VII Research clearence letter from the Open University 62 HYPERLINK l _Toc465969114 Appendix VII Research clearence letter from Municipal Education Office 63 LIST OF TABLES TOC h z c Table 3. HYPERLINK l _Toc465968787 Table 3. 1 Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc465968787 h 20 TOC h z c Table 4. HYPERLINK l _Toc465968802 Table 4. 1 Heads of schools Responses on Understanding of BRN Initiative PAGEREF _Toc465968802 h 25 HYPERLINK l _Toc465968803 Table 4. 2 Teachers Responses on Understanding of BRN Initiative (N25) PAGEREF _Toc465968803 h 26 HYPERLINK l _Toc465968804 Table 4. 3 Students awareness on the concept of BRN Initiative PAGEREF _Toc465968804 h 26 HYPERLINK l _Toc465968805 Table 4. 4 Heads of Schools responses on the Challenges of the BRN Initiative 27 HYPERLINK l _Toc465968806 Table 4. 5 Teachers responses on the challenges of the BRN Initiative PAGEREF _Toc465968806 h 28 HYPERLINK l _Toc465968807 Table 4. 6 Students Responses on the challenges of the BRN Initiative PAGEREF _Toc465968807 h 29 HYPERLINK l _Toc465968808 Table 4. 7 Heads of schools and teachers Responses on the ways of improving the implementation of BRN Initiative in Tabora municipality PAGEREF _Toc465968808 h 30 HYPERLINK l _Toc465968810 Table 4. 8 Responses from Students on the Accountability of Teachers PAGEREF _Toc465968810 h 31 HYPERLINK l _Toc465968811 Table 4. 9 Teachers Involvement in the Plans to Implement the BRN Initiative PAGEREF _Toc465968811 h 32 LIST OF FIGURES TOC h z c Figure 1. HYPERLINK l _Toc465969189 Figure 1. 1 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc465969189 h 7 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS BRN Big Results Now BRNEd Big Results Now in Education CSEE Certificate of Secondary Education Examination DEO District Education Officer ICT Information and Communication Technology MoEVT Ministry of Education and Vocation Training MMD Malaysian Model of Development NKRA National Key Result Area ODL Open and Distance learning OUT Open University of Tanzania PEMANDU Performance Management Delivery Unit PSLE Primary School Leaving Examination REO Regional Education Officer URT United Republic of Tanzania STEP Student-Teacher Enrichment Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural OrganizationCHAPTER ONE INRODUCTION AND THE NATURE OF THE STUDY 1.1 Introduction This study is about the investigation of the achievement of Big Result Now initiative on community secondary schools in Tabora municipality. Chapter one focuses on the background to the problem, statement of the problem, general and specific objectives of the research, research questions. Furthermore, the chapter presents the significance of the study, conceptual framework, and the chapter summary. 1.2 Background to the Study In the context of Tanzania, the Big Results Now (BRN) philosophy has come from the Malaysian Success Model. In Malaysia, the Big Results Now is known as the Big Fast Results Initiative. The Government of Tanzania was set to adopt the Malaysian Model of Development (MMD) the Big Fast Results Initiative in its own development outlook to be implemented beginning of 2014. The history of the Big Results Now (BRN) initiative can be traced back to the year2010 in Malaysia where the Malaysian government launched the Government Transformation Programme (URT 2013). This was an effort by Malaysian government to address seven key areas concerning the people of the country. It is worth noting that the key results areas were identified after conducting a wide national survey to ascertain the Malaysians demands and their most pressing issues. After the survey, it was revealed that the Malaysians were facing a number of problems such as increased crimes, corruption, unreliable clean and treated water supply, and low living standards, just to mention but a few. In view of this, the national key results areas which were given priorities in implementing the government transformation programme included reducing crimes, fighting corruption, improving students outcomes, and raising living standards of the low income households. In addition, the programme sought to improve rural basic infrastructure and ensure access to clean or treated water, improve urban public transport and address cost of living. The BRN for Education in Tanzania provides an opportunity to improve implementation and continued monitoring through systems improvement. The program also offers the possibility of improved skills and capacity along with increased coordination within the ministry of education. The Education National Key Result Area (NKRA) focuses on the improvement in learning and teaching environment, teachers welfare and benefits and capacity building on school management to heads of schools which facilitate improvement in the provision of education countrywide provide teachers training in Student-Teacher Enrichment Programme (STEP) methodology which will be applied in establishing STEP classes in secondary schools to support low-performing student. The focus of this study is to address and implement the BRN for Education in Tabora municipality Big Results Now (BRN) initiative aims at adopting new methods of working under specified timeframe for delivery of the step-change required. Big Results Now (BRN) initiative in Tabora municipality is a serious issue which needs to be addressed. The students, teachers, district education officers, the district chief school inspector, the regional education officer and the community of Tabora municipal would like to know the possible factors that contribute to the ineffectiveness of Big Results Now for education. Big Results Now for education is a new approach of improving the quality of education in Tanzania adopted from Malaysia. Hence it is a strategic agent for the development of the country. It has been noted that the Examination results of Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE) for 2012 and 2013 were poor. More than 50 per cent of the pupils sat for the CSEE in 2012 and 2013 failed. Basing on that background, this study aimed at investigating the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) Initiative on community secondary schools Development in Tabora. 1.3 Statement of the Problem A good number of studies have been conducted to investigate teachers perceptions of different education initiatives or programs in Tanzania and elsewhere (Komba Sigala 2015, Emanuel, 2012 Tarman ,2012 Mwalongo, 2011 Komba and Nkumbi, 2008 and Susuwele-Banda, 2005. However, none of these studies had investigated the various factors influencing the implementation of the BRN initiative in Tanzanian education sector. Meanwhile, there have been some mixed opinions regarding the implementation of the BRN initiative inTanzanian education sector. For example, while some stakeholders, especially the politicians, had expressed optimism that the implementation of the initiative would result in the improvement of the quality of education (URT, 2013), other stakeholders, including teachers and parents had expressed reservations on the success of the initiative (Nyirenda, 2013). Thus, this study is specifically designed to assess the achievement of Big results Now initiative in Tabora Municipality. 1.4 Objectives of the Study 1.4.1 General Objective The general objective of the study was to investigate the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) Initiative on community secondary schools Development in Tabora. 1.4.2 Specific Research Objectives The specific objectives of this research are as follows To investigate stake holders conception and experiences of Big Results Now initiative with respect to provision of secondary education in Tabora municipality To examine the level of implementation of Big Results Now initiative in the community secondary schools in Tabora municipality. To find out ways to improve the implementation of Big Results Now initiative in community secondary schools in Tabora municipality. 1.6 Research Questions In this study, the following research questions were to be answered How do stake holders conceive and experience about Big Results Now initiative with respect to provision of secondary education in Tabora municipality What is the level of implementation of Big Results Now initiative in the community secondary schools in Tabora municipality What are the alternative ways of improving the implementation of Big Results Now initiative for the development of community secondary schools in Tabora municipality 1.7 Significance of the Study The findings might provide useful information for administrators and policy makers in formulating education policy and strategies which promote quality education in the country. Additionally, the findings in this study added new ideas to literature on the implementation of Big Results Now in education in Tabora municipality. 1.8 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study 1.8.1 Limitations of the Study The study was limited by the lack of co-operation from the study respondents. This is owing to their busy work schedule when the researcher sought clarification on the information from them. However, this was solved by making several follow-ups and abiding to their schedules. 1.8.2. Delimitations of the Study Study confined itself in community secondary schools in Tabora municipality. Respondents included head of schools, students, teachers, education officials and parents. 1.9 Conceptual Framework of the Study According to Kumar (2001) the term conceptual framework is used interchangeably with the terms analytical framework and theoretical framework depending on the manner in which the author is using a particular term defines it. The term conceptual framework is used to denote a concept or a way of thinking. A framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, theories not necessarily so well worked out which guide the research , determining what things should be studied, measured and what statistical relationship to look for ( OUT, 2015). Furthermore, Hoover (1984) and Richey (1986) as cited by (Bayram, 2005) stated that conceptual frameworks are coming from the theoretical models that are analytic in nature and typically describe the relevant events based upon deductive processes of logic and analysis. Most academic research uses a conceptual framework at the outset because it helps the researcher to clarify his research question and aims. In the Context of the achievement of Big Results Now initiative in community secondary schools in Tabora municipality, this study was guided by the Context Input Process Product (CIPP) model as adopted and modified from Stufflebeam and Shinkfield (2007). The evaluation component of the Context, Input, Process, and Product model can help to identify service providers learning needs and the stakeholders needs. Context evaluation is often referred to as needs assessment. It asks, What needs assessment to be done and helps assess problems, assets, and opportunities within a defined community and environmental context (Stufflebeam Shinkfield, 2007). The input evaluation component can then help prescribe a responsive project that can best address the identified needs. The process evaluation component monitors the project process and potential procedural barriers, and identifies needs for project adjustments. The product evaluation component measures, interprets, and judges project outcomes and interprets their merit, worth, significance, and decency. Figure 1.1 below shows the Conceptual Framework of the study. Figure 1. SEQ Figure_1. ARABIC 1 Conceptual Framework Source CIPP Model Adopted from Stufflebeam (2000) This conceptual framework was used in this study to guide the implementation and performance of Big Results Now Initiative in community secondary schools. The education stakeholders such as District and Regional Education officers, Headmasters/Headmistresses, teachers, students and parents are important in the implementation of BRN initiatives. Adequate qualified science teachers, accountability of teachers and parents are responsible for the determination of the desired changes for improving teaching and learning processes which is the implementation of the Big Results Now Initiative. The end results of Big Results Now Initiative will lead to the improvement of the quality of education, improving students performance, improvement of quality of basic education service delivery as well as rising in school ranking. Komba and Sigala (2015) argues that the successful implementation of the BRN initiative in Tanzanian education sector is dependent upon the active participation of many stakeholders, including students, parents, teachers, and the government. These stakeholders are expected to play different roles in order to have the BRN initiative implemented successfully. 1.10 Definitions of the Key Terms 1.10.1 Achievement Kathy Gates (1990) define achievement as something accomplished, especially by superior ability, special effort, great courage, etc. a great or heroic deed The degree to which objectives are achieved and to the extent to which targeted problems are solved. Achievement as the act of achieving something the state or condition of having achieved or accomplished something. 1.10.2 Big Results Now Initiative (BRN) Is a strategically agent for education development in the country whereby the major function is to address educational challenges and reverse the trend focused on finding ways to raise the quality of basic education in Tanzania by improving pass rate (URT 2013). 1.10.3 Community Secondary Schools According to (Babyegeya, 2010), community secondary schools are part of the state owned secondary schools in Tanzania which were established in 1986 when local governments were requested to mobilise resources and build at least one secondary school in each district. After construction, the district authority had to hand the school to the central government to run it by providing teachers and their salaries, teaching and learning materials and other running costs. 1.10.4 Investigation The Macmillan English Dictionary for advanced learners (2002) defines investigation as the process of trying to find out all the detail or facts about something in order to discover who or what caused it or how it happened. In this study the term investigation has been used to find out the achievement of BRN Initiative on the development of secondary schools in Tabora municipality. 1.11 Chapter Summary The study sought to investigate the achievement of Big Results Now on community secondary schools in Tabora Municipality. The chapter has subsequently discussed the role of BRN as a tool for empowering people to fight against the three enemies of development namely ignorance, disease and poverty. The chapter has shown under performance of BRN to the extent of lowering its initiatives in Tabora Municipal community secondary schools. Also the chapter has shown that the information corrected from this study will help policy makers on formulating proper policies for the implementation of BRN. The chapter has also presented the introduction and nature of the study, background of the study, statement of the problem, and objectives of the study, research questions that guided the study, significant of the study, conceptual framework and definitions of terms. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction The chapter presents the literature review. The literatures presented are related to the study topic under investigation, i.e. the achievement of BRN on community secondary school in Tanzania. The chapter covers challenges facing education sector, implementation practice of BRN initiatives in the community secondary, factors influencing the implementation of the BRN ways of improving BRN in education. 2.2 Challenges facing education sector According to Nyirenda (2013) the challenges facing the education sector in Tanzania are Inadequate teachers, teachers content and pedagogy competence Lack of teachers motivation Lack of accountability among teachers Lack of teaching and learning aids Lack or inadequate infrastructure Lack of proper supervision at school level Monitoring and evaluation, and control of school quality Lack of effective and efficiency resource utilization Poor community participation Evaluation of skills and knowledge Provision of examination results Health of students Electricity and ICT utilization Curriculum preparation processes Curriculum content Teaching and monitoring of curriculum and Lack of adequate support to slow learning students. In order to rectify the above mentioned challenges, an analysis of the challenges came up with nine strategies which are likely to bring big results within a short time of implementation of these strategies. 2.3 Implementation /Practice of BRN initiatives in community secondary schools The following were the strategies adopted raising examination pass rate from 43 percent for secondary schools in 2012 to 60 percent in 2013. In addition, pass rates should also rise to 70 percent in 2014 and 80 percent in 2015. Nyirenda (2013) asserted the nine strategies which aim at improving quality of education are Official school ranking rank 100 percent of all schools in the annual official school ranking, starting with 2012 Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) and Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE) results School incentive scheme reward 4,000 most improved schools every year with monetary and non monetary incentives and recognize top 200 performers, starting with 2013 results. Monetary incentives be between TShs. 1,000,000/ and 5,000,000/ for primary schools and TShs.2, 000,000/ and 10,000,000/ for secondary schools School improvement toolkit distribute school improvement toolkit and train 19,000 school heads. This kit aims at supporting school heads to execute their work effectively. It complements the existing guidelines and is focused around a practical advice and simple best practices on school management National reading, writing and arithmetic (3Rs) assessment conduct the first national 3 R assessment in Standard Two in October 2013 3Rs teacher training train 12,300 Standard One and Two teachers in 3Rs teaching skills Student Teacher Enrichment Programme (STEP) train 17,000 primary and 8,000 secondary school teachers to support low performing students Basic facilities construction construct basic facilities in 1,200 secondary schools Capitation grants ensure 100 percent timely delivery of books and materials to all students through alternative funding and monitoring. The Resource mobilization lab aims to provide TShs.158 Billion by 2015 for teaching and learning materials to schools through the Education Investment Levy and Teacher motivation recognize teachers through non monetary incentives, ensure zero outstanding claims by end of June 2013, and zero unresolved claims not more than three months ahead. The implementation of the above mentioned strategies started since 17th April 2013. There are a number of tasks which have been accomplished including preparations of tool kit, training of teachers, releasing of TShs.26 Billion to start construction whereby 260 contracts have been awarded and payment of teachers accumulated claims. BRN for Education sector was publicly inaugurated on 15th August 2013 by Honorable Shukuru Kawambwa, Minister for Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT 2013). During the process of inauguration of BRN, senior education officers took oath pledging to meet targets as set in the education sector through BRN, failure of which they would be held accountable Public inauguration of BRN for education sector was preceded by internal meeting between the MoEVT high officials and Regional and District education officers (REOs and DEOs). During the meeting top officials from MoEVT provided a detailed explanation of BRN and expectations from REOs and DEOs to push forward the implementation of this programme. (MoEVT 2013). 2.4 Stakeholders conception regarding BRN intiatives in community secondary schools Studies have been conducted globally on teachers perceptions of various education issues Komba and Sigala (2015) Makewa, Masinda Mbuti (2012) Adeyemo (2011) Ifanti (2011) Jekayinfa (2011) Schreiner (2010) Ladd (2009). For example, Ladd (2009) conducted a study on teachers perceptions of theory working conditions in the United States of America. The main objective of this study was to examine the extent to which survey based perceptions of working conditions were predictive of policy relevant outcomes, independent of other school characteristics such as the demographic mix of the students. The findings of this study showed that the actual outcome measures helped to highlight both the strengths and weaknesses of using teacher survey data for understanding outcomes of policy interest. However, Ladds study was different from the current study because it did not focus on teachers perceptions of the government transformation programme in education sector. Moreover, Ifanti (2011) conducted a study on teachers perceptions of professionalism and professional development in Greece. The main objective of this study was to explore the notions of teachers professionalism and professional development by investigating the views of in service teachers. The findings of this study revealed that the teachers were acquainted with the issues of professionalism and sought to enhance their professional development. Like Ladds study, this study did focus on the teachers perceptions of the transformation programme in the education sector, which was the focus of the current study. The study was different from the current study because it did not focus on teachers perceptions of the transformation programme in the education sector. According to Nyirenda (2013) some of the inhibiting factors for Tanzania to achieve good results in education is that most teachers lack ethics and adequate skills, knowledge and morale for work, poor working conditions, lack of teaching and learning materials and facilities, and general teaching and learning environment does not support active learning process. Nyirenda added more by saying as a result we have observed disastrous examination performance in Standard Seven and Form Two examinations in the past five years. These poor results fuelled anger and frustration among citizens and demanded accountability of the government in ensuring education is improved. 2.5 Ways of improving the Implementation of Big Result Now( BRN) Education stake holders should ensure the availability of teaching and learning materials therefore enhances the effectiveness of schools as they are the basic resources that bring about good academic performance in the students. According to Department for International Development (DFID) in (Guidance note, a DFID practice paper, 2007) research evidence confirms that the most consistent characteristics in improving student performance are the availability of (a) textbooks and supplementary Teaching and Learning Materials (TLM).Well trained, prepared, supervised and motivated teachers (b) human resources and (c) Adequate physical facilities. (World Bank, 2013). The physical, material, human and financial resources invested in schools influence not only the education provided to students but also aspects of teachers and student motivation and consequently the educational outcomes. Adeogun (2001) discovered a very strong positive significant relationship between instructional resources and academic performance. According to Adeogun (2001), schools endowed with more materials performed better than schools that are less endowed. This corroborated the study by Babayomi (1999) that private schools performed better than public schools because of the availability and adequacy of teaching and learning materials. Mwiria (1985) also supports that students performance is affected by the quality and quantity of teaching and learning materials expenditure. This is because school expenditures constitute the bulk of all resources devoted to schooling and they are tractable instruments of education policy (Mwiria, 1985). Since the inception of FDSE policy, access to secondary education has gone up with the number of students enrolling in secondary education rising from 1.3 million in 2009 and 2.1 million students this year, raising the transition rate from 64 to 77 over the period.(FDSE, 2014) led to overcrowded classrooms and overutilization on existing teaching and learning resources. According to (Mwiria, 1985) Survey revealed that few schools provided libraries or reading corner to enable literate environment UNESCO (2007). A school should adequately utilize the available facilities to advance learning opportunities offered to pupils. It is the responsibility of the head teacher to ensure that there is adequate classroom space to enable teaching learning process to take place and should ensure that all facilities are efficiently and effectively utilized so as to achieve educational goals and improve learning outcomes. The government should ensure that there is enough supply of teachers to teach in secondary schools. Sumra (2005) asserts that government needs to ensure that all schools, whether in rural areas or in urban areas, have required number of teachers. 2.6 Research gap Analysis of relevant literature on BRN since its inception in 2013 indicates a paucity of research on BRN. Few existing studies focused on community secondary schools investigating on performance of students, quality, access , equity but no studies have been carried out on Big Result Now( BRN) specifically to Tabora Municipal which experience poor performance in community secondary schools .Therefore based on that argument this study aim at investigating the achievement of Big Result Now (BRN) on community secondary school in Tabora Municipal. 2.7 Chapter Summary The aim of this chapter is to introduce the thesis on its main theme of investigating the achievement of Big Result Now (BRN) in community secondary school s in Tabora Municipal. The chapter has subsequently discussed the challenges hindering effective implementation of BRN including poor supervision, lack of effective and efficiency resources utilization and poor community participation. The chapter has thus shown that physical, human and fiscal resources as useful resources for improving students performance in community secondary schools in Tanzania. The chapter has also presented challenges facing education sector, practice of BRN initiatives in the community secondary schools. Factors influencing the implementation of BRN in education, ways of improving BRN in community secondary schools and the research gap. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction The previous chapter presented a review of related literature. This chapter presents issues related to research methodology used in the study. It covers the research design employed by the study area or site, target population sampling and sampling procedures are well explicitly provided in this chapter. Other concepts that are included in this chapter are data analysis and ethical considerations. Finally provides a summary of the chapter is presented thereafter. 3.2 Research Design The research design adopted for the study was descriptive research design. The design enabled the researcher to gather data from a large population on the study area. Descriptive design research was intended to produce information answering questions concerning the current status of the study after collecting data. When studying a large area, it generalizes results from a sample of a population so that inferences can be made about some characteristics attitudes or behavior of the population. 3.3 Research Approach This study adopted a mixed methods approach, which is a procedure for collecting, analyzing and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data at some stage of the research process within a single study (Creswell, 2002). Quantitative and qualitative methods are compatible. Thus, both numerical and text data, collected sequentially or concurrently, can help better understanding of the research problem. 3.4 Area of the Study The study was conducted in Tabora municipality , one of the six districts of Tabora region in Tanzania. The study involved 58 students (34 boys and 24 girls), 5 heads of schools,25 teachers 2 municipal education officers and 10 parents. The sample was drawn conveniently from 5 secondary schools with a population of 2400 secondary school students. On the other hand, the choice of community secondary schools was done because the implementation of the BRN initiative in Tabora municipality is specifically aiming at improving the state of affairs in Tanzanian government secondary schools. The geographical location was chosen because the district has been recording poor performance in CSEE. The area was also selected due to researchers familiarity and accessibility. 3.5 Target Population According to Welman and Kruger (2002) population is the study object which may be individuals, groups, organizations, human products and events or the conditions to which they are exposed. The population of the study was 5community secondary schools with 5040 students. 3.6 Sample and Sampling Techniques According to Black and Champion (1976) cited in Mokofeng (2006) a sample is a portion of elements taken from a population which is considered to be a representative of the population. They have to be as representative to the population as possible, Kothari (199070) and Creswell (1994203). According to Leedy (1997) the purpose of a proper selection of a sample is to procure respondents who reflect the qualities and characteristics of the overall population. Sampling refers to the process by which the researcher attempts to select a representative group from the population under study. According to Creswell (2003) sampling is a process of selecting the individuals who will participate in a research while a sample is a group of individuals where the data/or information is obtained, (Willig, 2001). In this study the selection of respondents was done through convenience sampling, stratified sampling and systematic random sampling where 58 students (34 boys and 24 girls), 5 heads of schools,25 teachers 2 municipal education officers and 10 parents were selected. Convenience sampling involves drawing samples that are both easily accessible and willing to participate in the study. S/NCategory of sample No of respondentsMalesFemalesTotal12 Municipal education officers 1102210 Parents641035 Headmasters 3205425 Secondary school teachers 20525558 Secondary school students 342458 Total 6436100Table 3. SEQ Table_3. ARABIC 1 Sample Size 3.7 Methods of Data Collection In this study, a combination of two methods of data collection was used. That means data collection was done using both quantitative and qualitative approaches in order to arrive at a balanced view of the ground situation. 3.7.1 Questionnaire Questionnaires were used in this study to elicit response in investigating the achievement of BRN on community secondary schools in Tabora Municipal In this type of research respondents have adequate time to give well thought out answers. Furthermore the researcher can use a large sample so as to ensure dependable and reliable results. The questionnaires were used to find out the achievement of Big Results Now in Education in Tabora municipality. 3.7.2 The Interview The nature of a questionnaire does not give room for additional responses from the respondents. For the purpose of this project, face-to-face interviews were used to collect data from selected respondents through verbal questioning. Both semi-structured and unstructured questions were used. According to Msuya and Maro (2002) interview is the best approach since it provides room for dialogue and results in a high response rate. Both structured and unstructured questions were provided to the respondents who participated in this study (Appendix Vand VI). The first questions intended to elicit responses on the conception and experience of BRN initiative, with respect to the provision of secondary education in Tabora municipality. The second question explored peoples practice of BRN initiatives in the community secondary school in Tabora municipality. The last question sought information on the ways to improve the implementation of BRN initiatives in community secondary schools in Tabora Municipality. However, before administering the interview the researcher developed positive relationship with the informants and considered issues of human research ethics. 3.8 Data Analysis In this study both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques were used The quantitative data were analyzed with the help of computer software, in which frequencies and percentages of responses on teachers perceptions of the implementation of the BRN initiative in Tabora municipality were computed. The qualitative information collected through focus group discussion were analysed through content analysis. 3.9 Ethical Considerations The researcher obtained research clearance letters from the Open University of Tanzania and Tabora Municipal Education office. Additionally, before administering the interview the researcher developed positive relationship with the informants and considering issues of human research ethics. Gray (2004) holds that to develop rapport (relationship) the following need to be observed. First is to explain how long the interview will last then explain the purpose of the interview. Thereafter one needs to ask the permission to tape the respondents and explain how the information provided by the respondents could be kept confidential where necessary. 3.10 Chapter Summary The aim of this chapter is to show how data collected from the field were analysed together with the methods and techniques used to collect data, on the theme related to the investigation of achievement of BRN in community secondary school in Tabora Municipal. The chapter has discussed the overall, analysis of findings presented issues which required further discussion in order to allow better understand of the achievement of BRN regarding the conception and experience of BRN initiative, with respect to the provision of secondary education in Tabora municipality, explore peoples practice of BRN initiatives in the community secondary school and find out ways to improve the implementation of big result now initiatives in community secondary schools in Tabora Municipality . The issues which emerged were classified into three category based on the research objectives, it is from that point the researcher channeled the ideas to their respective group. Other issues appeared to be challenging during the discussion including the word Big Result Now the term is confusing but as a researcher was very technique to allow respondent provide correct answer.. CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS 4.1 Introduction This chapter presents findings, analyses and discusses the findings on the basis of research objectives which were to To investigate stake holders conception and experiences of Big Results Now initiative with respect to provision of secondary education in Tabora municipality. To examine the level of implementation of Big Results Now initiative in the community secondary schools in Tabora municipality. To find out ways to improve the implementation of Big Results Now initiative in community secondary schools in Tabora municipality. 4.2 Stake holders Conception and Experiences of Big Results Now initiative with Respect to Provision of Secondary Education in Tabora Municipality The first objective of this study was to investigate stake holders conception of Big Results Now initiative with respect to provision of secondary education in Tabora municipality. In collecting data to achieve this objective, a total of 100 respondents were each given a set of questionnaire to fill in and give their views and opinions on the concept of Big Results Now initiative in education sector. The responses were grouped into thematic areas as follows 4.2.1 Heads of schools and teachers understanding of the BRN Initiative Table 4. 1 Heads of schools Responses on Understanding of BRN Initiative (N05) Understanding of the BRN InitiativeFrequencyPercentA slogan adopted from Malaysia to improve the academic performance of students in Tanzania0480Not known0120Total05100Source Researchers field Data, (July 2016) As indicated in Table 4.1, 04 (80) of the respondents reported that BRN initiative was a slogan adopted from Malaysia to improve the academic performance of students in Tanzania, while 1(20) said that BRN initiative was a new concept to him. Basing on results from face to face interview conducted by the researcher the respondents pointed out that BRN initiative was introduced to Tanzania for the purpose of improving the academic standard of students in Tanzania. Table 4. 2 Teachers Responses on Understanding of the BRN Initiative (N25) Concept of the BRN InitiativeFrequencyPercentTo improve the academic performance of students in Tanzania0832Adopted from Malaysia to improve the academic performance of students in Tanzania0728A deliver methodology focused on specific goals0624Do not know 416 Source Researchers field findings As indicated in Table 4.2, 08 (32) of the respondents (teachers) reported that BRN initiative was a move to improve the academic performance of students in Tanzania, 07 (28) said that BRN was Adopted from Malaysia to improve the academic performance of students in Tanzania 6 (24) reported that BRN Initiative was a delivery methodology focused on specific goals while 4 (16) said that they did not know. Basing on results from face to face interview conducted by the researcher the respondents pointed out that BRN initiative was introduced to Tanzania for the purpose of improving the academic standard of students in Tanzania. 4.2.2 Students Understanding of BRN Initiative in Tabora Municipality Table 4. 3 Students awareness on the concept of BRN Initiative (N58) FrequentPercentCumulative PercentHave you ever heard about the concept of BRN Initiative Yes579898NO0102100Total58100Source Researchers field findings The findings in Table 4.3 indicate that the majority of students 57(98) were aware of the BRN Initiative 4.3 The challenges of the BRN Initiative 4.3.1 Heads of Schools, Teachers and Students responses on the Challenges of the BRN Initiative Table 4. 4 Heads of Schools responses on the Challenges of the BRN Initiative Selected Challenges of BRN InitiativeFrequencyPercentShortage of fund to implement BRN Initiative490Shortage of science teachers5100BRN deals with only four subjects5100Marking of BRN tests does not involve the district380The BRN assumes all schools have equal requirements380Teachers and students are not involved in the implementation5100Lack of training for BRN Initiative490There is no seminar to teachers on how to implement BRN Initiative in Tanzania490 The results in Table 4.4 above indicate that Shortage of science teachers, BRN deals with only four subjects and Teachers and students are not involved in the implementation seem to be the major challenges of the BRN Initiative in education at Tabora municipality 5 (100). followed by Shortage of fund to implement BRN Initiative and lack of training for BRN Initiative 4 (98). Responses from some of the respondents were Lack of enough funds to implement BRN Initiative Marking of BRN tests does not involve the district Lack of seminar and motivation to teachers on BRN Initiative Lack of supervision on the implementation of BRN Initiative 4.3.2 Teachers responses on the Challenges of the BRN Initiative Table 4. 5 Teachers responses on the challenges of the BRN Initiative (N25) Selected Challenges of BRN InitiativeFrequencyPercent Lack of enough fund to implement BRN Initiative Shortage of science teachers2496Shortage of science teachers2496BRN deals with only four subjects 2496Marking of BRN tests does not involve the district1872Shortage of trained teachers to implement BRN2390Teachers and students are not involved in the implementation2390Lack of seminar and motivation to teachers on BRN Initiative2080Lack of proper plan to implement BRN Initiative2080Lack of supervision on the implementation2080Poor planning of operating the programme2496 Table 4.5 shows that lack of enough fund to implement BRN Initiative, shortage of science teachers, BRN deals with only four subjects and Poor planning of operating the programme were the major challenges of BRN Initiative at Tabora municipality 24 (96). Other challenges included Shortage of trained teachers to implement BRN, Teachers and students are not involved in the implementation 23 (90). Responses from some of the respondents from the interview were The BRN assumes all schools have equal requirement teachers and students are not involved in the implementation Shortage of trained teachers to implement BRN 4.3.3 Responses from Students on the challenges of the BRN Initiative Table 4. 6 Students Responses on the challenges of the BRN Initiative (N58) Selected Challenges of BRN InitiativeFrequencyPercent Lack of enough fund to implement BRN Initiative 5391.38Shortage of science teachers5391.38BRN deals with only four subjects 5391.38Marking of BRN tests does not involve the district4068.97Shortage of trained teachers to implement BRN5086Teachers and students are not involved in the implementation5086Lack of supervision on the implementation4577.6There is no seminar to teachers on how to implement BRN Initiative in Tanzania4577.6Poor planning of operating the programme4577.6Lack of accountability of teachers5391.38 Table 4.6 indicates that lack of enough fund to implement BRN Initiative, shortage of science teachers, BRN deals with only four subjects and Lack of teachers accountability were the major challenges of BRN Initiative at Tabora municipality 53 (91.38).Other respondents reported that Teachers and students are not involved in the implementation of BRN Initiative, Shortage of trained teachers to implement BRN, Shortage of trained teachers to implement BRN Initiative were the challenges of BRN initiative. 4.4 Ways of Improving the Implementation of BRN Initiative in Tabora municipality The researcher was interested to find out from the respondents the ways of Improving the Implementation of the BRN Initiative in Tabora municipality. The responses from the Heads of schools were as shown in Table 4.7. Table 4. 7 Heads of schools and teachers Responses on the ways of improving the implementation of BRN Initiative in Tabora municipality (N30) Ways of improving the implementation of the BRN Initiative in Tabora municipality FrequencyPercentThe government should provide enough fund to all secondary schools to facilitate BRN Initiative2686.67The government should conduct seminars to teachers on the BRN initiative30100The government should motivate teachers 30100The government should train and post enough science teachers to all government schools in the country30100The teachers should be responsible and accountable in teaching the students30100Teachers and students should be involved in the implementation of BRN Initiative30100 As indicated in Table 4.7 above on the ways of improving the implementation of the BRN Initiative in Tabora municipality. The respondents said that the government should conduct seminars to teachers on the BRN initiative, The government should motivate teachers, The teachers should be responsible and accountable in teaching the students, Teachers and students should be involved in the implementation ob BRN Initiative 5 (100). The findings from the focus group discussions revealed the following First, the respondents were of the view that the government should conduct seminars on the BRN initiative for the purpose of having the teachers informed about BRN initiative. On this aspect, some of the respondents had this to say In order to facilitate and achieve good students performance, the teachers should be more responsible and accountable in teaching the students. It is important for the government to conduct seminars for teachers because they are very important persons in the BRN initiative implementation process. The government should train and recruit more science teachers for secondary schools in the country 4.4.1 Accountability of Teachers The researcher was interested to find out from the respondents whether the teachers were fulfilling accountability in executing their duties. The responses from the Heads of schools were as shown in Table 4.8 Table 4. 8 Responses from Students on the Accountability of Teachers (N58) Accountability of teachersFrequencyPercentExcellent1017Good1221Poor2034Unfair162858100Source Researchers field findings Table 4 .8 indicates that 20 (34) respondents said that the accountability of teachers was fair, 16 (28) said it was unfair, 12 (21) said it was good while 10 (17) it was excellent. Therefore, the responses from the respondents revealed that the majority of teachers were not fulfilling their duties as required. That means that the accountability of teachers in the community secondary schools in Tabora municipality was generally poor. 4.4.2 Involvement of teachers in the Plans to Implement the BRN Initiative Table 4.9 Responses from Respondents on Teachers Involvement in the Plans to Implement BRN Initiative in Tabora municipality. Table 4. 9 Teachers Involvement in the Plans to Implement the BRN Initiative Level of OpinionFrequencyPercentAgree312Undecided416Disagree832Strong Disagree1040Source Researchers field findings As it can be seen in Table 4.9, 40 of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement that teachers were Involved in the Plans to Implement the BRN Initiative, 8 (60) disagreed and 4 (16 were undecided. However, the minority 3 (12) of the respondents agreed that teachers were Involved in the Plans to Implement the BRN Initiative. Therefore, the majority of the respondents felt that the government was not making enough efforts to see to it that teachers were sensitized to implementing the BRN initiative. 4.5 Summary of the Chapter This chapter has presented, analyzed and discussed the major findings of the study on the investigation of the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) Initiative on Community Secondary Schools in Tabora municipality. The major findings are pointed out from the research specific objectives and research question asked under each task to guide the study. The main study findings and conclusions and recommendations are well put in chapter five of this study. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Introduction This chapter presents the summary, conclusions and recommendations of the study on the investigation of the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) Initiative on Community Secondary Schools in Tabora municipality. In this study both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques were used. 5.2 Study Summary This study investigated the achievement of the implementation of Big Results Now (BRN) in Community Secondary Schools in Tabora municipality. Information on key research questions was obtained through questionnaires and face-to-face interview. The study involved 58 students (34 boys and 24 girls), 5 heads of schools, 25 teachers, 2 municipal education officers and 10 parents. The sample was drawn conveniently from 5 secondary schools. The study investigated the stakeholders conception and experiences of Big Results Now initiative with respect to provision of secondary education in Tabora municipality, the level of implementation of Big Results Now initiative in the community secondary schools in Tabora municipality and the ways of improving the implementation of Big Results Now initiative in community secondary schools in Tabora municipality The study revealed that the implementation of BRN Initiative in community secondary schools in Tabora municipality has not been achieved positively. The findings of this study have revealed that majority of the education stakeholders were not well informed about the implementation of the BRN initiative in Tabora municipality. There was lack of understanding on the objectives of BRN Initiative in among the teachers. It also shows that when the plans to implement this initiative in Tabora municipality were being prepared, the majority of the stakeholders were not involved. Instead, the teachers were only informed about the concept of BRN initiative. Moreover, the conditions in schools were not supportive for the successful implementation of the BRN initiative. Regarding the findings that the schools lacked science teachers it was obvious that the implementation of BRN Initiative in Tabora municipality would not be achieved as teaching and learning process for science subjects which are the key subject for the achievement of BRN Initiative in Tabora municipality. In view of the study and the findings presented, one would say that lack of fund and government support if not made available the implementation of BRN Initiative cannot be effectively achieved. The findings revealed that all the community secondary schools in Tabora municipality were neither given fund for the implementation of BRN Initiative nor supported by the government. Furthermore, the observation that the majority of teachers were not involved when plans for implementing the BRN initiative were being prepared is likely to affect the implementation of the initiative. This is because of the common view that educational initiatives or programmes will be more effective if teachers are given more autonomy and they are involved in decision-making concerning the programmes (Komba Kira, 2013). It means that teacher participation in decision making is always associated with successful implementation of any educational initiative (Kira, Komba, Kafanabo Tilya, 2013). 5.3 Conclusions Based on the findings, this study has revealed that the implementation of the BRN initiative in Tabora municipality was facing a number of challenges such as lack of enough fund to implement BRN Initiative, shortage of trained teachers to implement BRN, shortage of science teachers, BRN deals with only four subjects, lack of teachers accountability and teachers were not motivated. It is important for the government to train and post science teachers to the community secondary schools as well as motivates the teachers in order to address the challenges to ensure that the BRN initiative is successfully implemented. Furthermore, since the teachers are the cornerstone in the implementation of this initiative, they should be motivated. It is generally accepted that teachers play a pivotal role in promoting the quality of education. For example, Galabawa (2001) points out that the academic performance of students in schools is very much dependent upon the teachers who are the main instrument for bringing improvement in learning. This implies that when there is an initiative and/or programme introduced in the education sector, the successful implementation of the same will essentially depend on the teachers perceptions of the introduced initiative or programme. It is important that the teachers should be motivated, for instance, settling their dues on time and providing them with a variety of motivation packages such as accommodation facilities and hardship allowances. Lastly, the government should improve the teaching and learning conditions in schools by providing the schools with enough funds in order to make them supportive, hence successful implementation of the BRN initiative. In view of this, it is recommended that teachers should be educated on the objectives of implementing the BRN initiative in Tanzanian education sector. This is important as the findings of this study through both the questionnaire and focus group discussions have revealed that the majority of teachers were not involved in BRN Initiative. 5.4 Recommendations 5.4.1 Recommendation for Policy Action The government should formulate proper policies and plans that guide the quality of education to all levels of education 5.4.2 Recommendations for Practice The government should improve the teaching and learning conditions in schools by providing the schools with enough funds in order to make them supportive, hence successful implementation of the BRN initiative. Teachers should be educated on the objectives of implementing the BRN initiative in Tanzanian education sector. The government should improve the teaching and learning conditions in schools by providing the schools with enough funds in order to make them supportive, hence successful implementation of the BRN initiatives. 5.4.3 Recommendations for Further studies Further research need to be carried out on the same theme Big Result Now so as to assess its implementation to other levels like primary, teachers college and higher education. The researcher suggests the need to perform further studies on the same topic covering a large sample in order to generalize the findings. The study based on the investigation of the achievement of the implementation of Big Results Now (BRN) Initiative on Community Secondary Schools in Tabora municipality was limited to only 100 respondents coming from Tabora municipality in Tabora region only. The study was confined in community secondary schools. It would be worthwhile to conduct a similar study in private schools to see if there are any significant differences performances in regard with BRN Initiative. 5.5 Chapter Summary The aim of this chapter is to present the findings based on the thesis with the main theme of investigating the achievement of BRN in community secondary school in Tabora municipality The chapter has presented critical issues including lack of awareness and poor involvement of educational stakeholders about Big Result Now (BRN) initiatives .Chapter has presented major challenge raised in the field including shortage of fund ,lack of proper plans for the implementation of BRN also few subjects were induced in the implementation .The chapter has also presented suggestion for better implementation of BRN including provision of fund ,involvement of teachers in the implementation of BRN for better performance. REFERENCES Adeogun, A. A. (2001). The principal and the financial management of public secondary schools in Osun State. Journal of Educational System and Development, 5(1), 1 – 10. Adeyemo, S. A. (2011). The effect of teachers perception and students perception of Physics classroom learning environment on their academic achievement. International Journal of Educational Research and Technology, 2(1), 74-81. Amjad, M. S., Quresh, M. I. (2011). Credentials and Examination of the factors affecting the students academic achievement in Higher Education A case of Universities in Public Private Sector at D.I.KHAN. Gomal University Journal of Research, 27(2), 74-80. Auerbach, C. F Silverstein, L. B., (2003). Qualitative data An introduction to coding and analysis. New York, NY New York University press. Babyegeya, E. (2010). Is it Secondary Education or Secondary Schooling in Tanzania Community Secondary Schools Journal of Issues and Practice in Education, 2(2), 1821-5548. Bayram, S. (2004). Revisioning Theoretical Framework of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) within the Software Application Examples, TOJDE, 5, (2). HYPERLINK http//tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde14/articles/bayram.htm http//tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde14/articles/bayram.htm. Byers, A., Childs, A. Laine, G. (1994). The science teacher handbook ideas and activities for every classroom. Heinemann Educational Publishers, London Creswell, J. W. (2002). Research design Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed Methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage. Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches (2nd ed.). California Sage. Bontoux, V., Buchan, A. (2007) Secondary Textbook and School Library Provision in Sub-Saharan Africa A Review based on 19 National Case Studies World Bank, Washington ( HYPERLINK http//www.worldbank.org www.worldbank.org). Emanuel, H. (2012). The perceptions of school teachers and leaders toward school inspections in Tanzania secondary schools. The Case of Arusha Municipality. Unpublished Masters of Science in Educational Science and Technology Dissertation. University of Twente, Belgium. Ferraro, K. F. (1996). Womens fear of victimization Shadow of sexual assault Social Forces, 75(2), 667690. Freire, P. (1971). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York Seabury Press. Galabawa, J.C.J. (2001). Advocacy mobilization and partnership for education and literacy for all in Tanzania. Papers in Education and Development, (2), 1-13. Hanushek, Eric, A., Wobmann. Ludger. (2007). Quality and Growth Educational Quality and Economic Growth. The international For Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington DC. Henderson, A., Mapp, K. (2002). A new wave of evidence The impact of school, parent and community connections student achievement. Austin, TX Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Hoover, S. (1984). The elements of social scientific thinking (3rd Ed.). New York St. Martins Press. Huysamen, G. K. (1997). Qualitative and quantitative research cycles. South African Journal of Psychology, 28 (1), 183-190. Ifanti, A. (2001). Teachers perceptions of professionalism and professional development. World Journal of Education, 1(1), 40-45. Jekayinfa, A. (2011). Teachers perceptions of social studies education. Retrieved from HYPERLINK https//www.unilorin.edu.ng/publications/jekayinoluwa/5.20TEACHER20PERCEPTIONS.htm https//www.unilorin.edu.ng/publications/jekayinoluwa/5.20TEACHER20PERCEPTIONS.htm Joyce, B. Weil, M. (1996). Methods of Teaching. Boston Allyn Bacon. Linde, G. (1993). On Curriculum Transformation Explaining Selection of Content in Teaching, HLS, Uppsala. Kelly, A. V. (1997). The Curriculum Theory and Practice. London Harper and Row. Kikwete, J. E. (2014). Tanzanias transformation and vision 2025 Governing economic growth for social gain. Retrieved from HYPERLINK http//www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/home/chatham/http//www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/home/chatham/ public_html/sites/default/files/20140331TanzaniaKikwete.pdf Komba, W., Nkumbi, E. (2008). Teacher Professional Development in Tanzania Perceptions and Practices. Journal of International Cooperation in Education, 11(3), 67-83. Komba, S.C., Kira, E.S. (2013). The effectiveness of teaching practice in improving student teachers teaching skills in Tanzania. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(1), 157-163. Komba, S, C., Sigala, J. N. (2015). An Investigation of Teachers Perceptions of the Implementation of the Big Results Now Initiative in Tanzanian Education Sector. In International Journal of Education, 7(2), 1948-5476. Kira, E., Komba, S.C., Kafanabo, E., Tilya, F. (2013). Teachers questioning techniques in advanced chemistry lessons A Tanzanian perspective. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(12), 66-79. HYPERLINK http//dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2013v38n12.7 http//dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2013v38n12.7 Kothari, C. R. (1990). Research methodology Methods and Techniques, 2nd Ed. New Delhi Willey Eastern Limited. Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methods methods and techniques. 2nd revise edition. New Delhi New Age International (P) Limited. Kumar, R. (2005). Research methodology A step-by-step guide for beginners. Montfort University SAGE, Publications. Ladd, F. (2009). Teachers perceptions of their working conditions How predictive of policy-relevant outcomes National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, 33, 29-33. Linde, G. (1993). On Curriculum Transformation Explaining Selection of Content in Teaching, HLS, and Uppsala. Macmillan English Dictionary For advanced Learners (2002). London Macmillan Publisher. Macmillan English Dictionary.Implementation.httpwww.macmillandictionary.com (Accessed September 5, 2016). Merriam Webster. Achievement. HYPERLINK http//www.merriam-webster.com http//www.merriam-webster.com (accessed September 4, 2016). McLaren, P. (2003). Life in Schools An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy. New York Pearson. Mofokeng, P. L. (2006). The Provisioning of Information and Communication Technology Resources in the Mpumalanga Department of Education in Fert Schools in the Gert Sibande Region. Mini- Dissertation. University of Johannesburg. Msuya, J. Maro, F.(2002). The Provision of Library and Information Services to Distance Learners The Open University of Tanzania (OUT). Libri, 52 (3) 183-191. Mtitu, E.A. (2014). Learner-centred teaching in Tanzania Geography teachers perceptions and experiences. A thesis Submitted to Victoria University of Wellington in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Victoria University of Wellington. Mwalongo, A. (2011). Teachers Perceptions about ICT for Teaching, Professional Development, Administration and Personal use. International Journal of Education and Development, (7), 36-49. Mwiria, K. (1985) The Harambee School Movement A historical perspective. Unpublished Ph. D Thesis, University of Wisconsin. Nyirenda, M. (2013). Can we achieve big results now in Education The Guardian. Orodho, J. A. (2003) Regional Inequalities in Education, Population and Poverty Patterns in Kenya Emerging Issues and Policy Directions, Population of Kenya Journal. Orodho, J. A., Njeru, H. E. (2002). Reflecting on Human Security Now, UN Center for Development, 24, 2. OUT. (2015). Prospectus 2014/2015.OUT Dar es Salaam. Schneider, M. (2002). Do Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Retrieved from HYPERLINK http//www.edfacilities.org www.edfacilities.org on Aug 20, 2008. Schreiner, M. (2010a). Seven Extremely Simple Poverty Scorecards. Enterprise Development and Microfinance, 21, ( 2). 118136. Schreiner, M. (2010b). A Simple Poverty Scorecard for Pakistan. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 45, (3), 326349. Sharan, S., Shachar, H., Levin, T. (1999). The Innovative School Organisation and Instruction. Gergin and Garvey, London. Stufflebeam, D. L. (2000). The CIPP Model for evaluation. In Stufflebeam, D.L., Madaus, G. F. Kellaghan, T. (Eds.). Evaluation Models Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation. Boston Kluwer Academic Publishers. Stufflebeam, D. L. Shinkfield, A. J. (2007). Evaluation theory, Models, Applications. San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass. Susuwele-Banda, W. (2005). Classroom Assessment in Malawi Teachers Perceptions and Practices in Mathematics. Science and Education Research, 102-117. Retrieved from HYPERLINK http//Scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-00212005http//Scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-00212005. Tarman, T. (2012). Prospective teachers beliefs and perceptions about teaching as a profession. Educational Sciences Theory and Practice, 1964-1973. Retrieved from http//www.academia.edu/2329026/ Prospective- Teachers UNESCO. (1998). Module 2 Counseling. Regional Training Seminar on guidance and counseling. Zambia. URT. (2013). Big results now initiatives. Prime Ministers Office, Regional Administrative and Local Government, Dodoma, Tanzania. World Bank. (2013). Service Delivery Indicators- Education and Health services in Kenya. Data for results and Accountability. APPENDICES APPENDIX SEQ APPENDIX_ ROMAN I QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE MUNICIPAL EDUCATION OFFICERS Dear Sir/Madam The purpose of this research is to investigate the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) initiative on community secondary schools in Tabora municipality. You are kindly requested to give genuine responses to the questions .This questionnaire intends to obtain a profile of responses related to the research focus. Note that the information you give will be treated with the utmost confidentiality and used sorely for academic purpose indicated herein. What do you know about the concept of Big Results Now Initiative as applied in Tanzania What is the students academic performance in your school for the past 3 years in your school For the purpose of implementing BRN, what is the condition of secondary school buildings in Tabora municipality Teaching and learning materials for the students is of vital importance in achieving BRN in Tabora municipality. What is the availability of such material Rate the availability of materials Teaching and learning FacilitiesAVAILABILITYPlentyAdequateScarceNot availableChemicals and apparatusLaboratory equipmentSurvey equipmentBiology LaboratoryPhysics LaboratoryChemistry LaboratoryLibrary How helpful are the teaching and learning materials to the learners as far as BRN is concerned. How many secondary schools are equipped with Hostel facilities which help in the implementation of BRN in Tabora municipality Through your experience, what do you think are the salient challenges of Big Results Now in Education in Tabora municipality List at least six challenges. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Can you suggest ways of improve the implementation of Big Results Now initiative in Tabora municipality . Thank you very much for your participation in this regard APPENDIX SEQ APPENDIX_ ROMAN II Dodoso kwa Wazazi Mpendwa Bwana/ Bibi , Madhumuni ya utafiti huu ni kutafuta Kiwango utekelezaji wa Mpango wa Matokeo Makubwa Sasa Katika shule za sekondari katika eneo la manispaa ya Tabora. Tafadhali toa jibu sahihi. Dodoso hili linalenga kupata usahihi wa majibu tarajiwa. Majibu utakayo toa yatkuwa ni siri na yatatumika kwa ajili ya utafiti huu peke yake. Je umeshawahi kusikia kuhusu mpango wa maendeleo ya elimu shuleni unaoitwa Matokeo Makubwa Sasa Ndiyo Hapana Wewe ambaye ni mzazi wa wanfunzi katika shule za sekondari katika eneo la manispaa ya Tabora unafikiri ni sababu zipi zinazopelekea kushuka kwa matokeo ya wanafunzi. Elezea sababu sita Je wanfunzi hupata huduma ya chakula cha mchana wakiwa shule Ndiyo Hapana Je uongozi wa shule hutoa motisha kwa walimu wanaofundisha kwa kuzingatia mpango wa matokeo mazuri sasa Ndiyo Hapana SABABU/NDIYO HAPANAUkosefu wa madawatiUkosefu wa vitabu Mlundikano wa wanafunzi darasani wazazi kukosa mwamko wa elimuUwajibikaji mdogo wa walimuKipato duni kwa wazaziWatoto kutopata chakula cha mchana 8. Nini kifanyike ili kuendeleza Mtokeo Makubwa Sasa katika elimu katika manispaa yaTabora Asante kwa kushiriki kwako APPENDIX SEQ APPENDIX_ ROMAN III QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE HEADS OF SCHOOLS Dear Sir/Madam The purpose of this research is to investigate the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) initiative on community secondary schools in Tabora municipality. You are kindly requested to give genuine responses to the questions .This questionnaire intends to obtain a profile of responses related to the research focus. Note that the information you give will be treated with the utmost confidentiality and used sorely for academic purpose indicated herein. What do you understand by the concept of Big Results Now Initiative as applied in Tanzania . Through your experience, what do you think are the major problems of Big Results Now in Education in Tabora municipality List at least six problems. (a) (b) (c) (d). . (e).. .. (f). … Does your school have enough science teachers for facilitation BRN implementation Rate the Availability/Shortage of teachers SubjectRequiredAvailableShortage KiswahiliEnglishMathematics Civics Biology Physics ChemistryGeographyHistory Commerce B/KeepingWhat is the qualification of your teaching staff Indicate in the table below by showing the number QualificationAvailableMasters degreeGraduatesDiplomaCertificate Does the school have adequate non teaching staff Rate the availability/Shortage of non teaching staff in the table below Type of work RequiredAvailableShortage Typist/SecretaryLibrarianAccounts clerkOffice attendantWatch manLaboratory technicianCooks What is the condition of buildings and furniture in relation to achievement of BRN Rate the availability/Shortage of buildings and furniture in the table below FacilityRequiredAvailableShortageTeachers housesClassroomsAssembly hallTeachers toiletsPupils toilets Student DesksChemistry laboratory Physics LaboratoryBiology LaboratoryLibraryWhat is the situation of teaching and learning materials in your school Rate the availability of materials Teaching and learning FacilitiesAVAILABILITYPlentyAdequateScarceNot availableChemicals and apparatusLaboratory equipmentSurvey equipment In your opinion, explain the role of teaching and learning materials to the learners. Does your school provide food for the students Yes OR NO Can you suggest ways of improving the implementation of Big Results Now initiative in Tabora Municipality Thank you very much for your participation in this regard APPENDIX SEQ APPENDIX_ ROMAN IV QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE TEACHERS Dear Sir/Madam The purpose of this research is to investigate the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) initiative on community secondary schools in Tabora municipality. You are kindly requested to give genuine responses to the questions .This questionnaire intends to obtain a profile of responses related to the research focus. Note that the information you give will be treated with the utmost confidentiality and used sorely for academic purpose indicated herein. What do you understand by the concept of Big Results Now in Education as applied in Tanzania Through your experience, what do you think are the major problems of Big Results Now in Education in Tabora municipality List at least six problems. 3. What is the teaching load per week of the subjects you teach Indicate the number in the appropriate subjects column SUBJECTTeaching load Per week KiswahiliEnglishMathematicsCivicsBiologyPhysicsChemistryGeographyHistoryCommerceB/keeping 4. What is the condition of buildings and furniture in relation to the achievement of BRN your school Rate the availability/Shortage of buildings and furniture in the table below by putting the required number FacilityRequiredAvailableShortageTeachers housesClassroomsAssembly hallTeachers toiletsPupils toiletsStudent DesksChemistry laboratoryPhysics LaboratoryPhysics LaboratoryBiology LaboratoryLibrary 5. In your opinion, explain the role of teaching and learning materials to the learners. . 6. Does your school have a hostel for the students NO Yes 7. Can you suggest ways of improving the implementation of Big Results Now Initiative in Tabora municipality. Thank you very much for your participation in this regard APPENDIX SEQ APPENDIX_ ROMAN V A QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS The purpose of this research is to investigate the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) initiative on community secondary schools in Tabora municipality. You are kindly requested to give genuine responses to the question. This questionnaire intends to obtain a profile of responses related to the research focus Note that the information you get will be treated with the utmost confidentiality and used sorely for academic purpose indicated herein Have you heard about the concept of Big Results Now (BRN) (Yes) (No) Through your experience, what do you think are the challenges of Big Results Now in Education in your area (List at least six challenges). What should be done to improve the implementation of Big Results Now in community secondary schools in Tabora municipality Does the school provide lunch for you (Yes) (No) What are the environmental factors which affect the teaching and learning process Put a tick in the appropriate space (Factors) YES NOShortage of Furniture Shortage of textbooks Congestion of studentsLack parents awareness on education)Lack of accountability of teachersLow income of parentsStudents staying hungry during school time.students not paying attention to lessonsDoes your school possess enough science teachers for BRN implementation Yes No If the answer is no what is the shortage. Write the number in the appropriate space (SUBJECT)(SHORTAGE) Kiswahili (CivicsGeographyEnglishMathematics HistoryScienceAgricultural ScienceArtBiologyChemistryPhysicsWhat is the accountability of teachers in the teaching and learning of BRN oriented subjects Thank you very much for your participation in this regardAPPENDIX SEQ APPENDIX_ ROMAN VI INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR SELECTED RESPONDENTS Dear Sir/Madam The purpose of this research is to investigate the achievement of Big Results Now (BRN) initiative on community secondary schools in Tanzania, particularly in Tabora municipality. This questionnaire intends to obtain a profile of responses related to the research focus. You are kindly requested to give genuine responses to the questions. Note that the information you give will be treated with the utmost confidentiality and used sorely for academic purpose indicated herein. Sex Female ( ) Male ( ) What is the concept of Big Results Now Initiative applied in Tanzania What are the key issues considered in addressing the implementation of Big Results Now Initiative in Tabora municipality In your opinion what have been done in implementing the Big Results Now in community secondary schools in Tabora municipality Accountability is an important aspect in the implementation of Big Results Now. What is the situation of accountability of teachers in teaching process in community secondary schools in Tabora municipality Through your experience, what do you think are the challenges of Big Results Now in Tabora municipality Does your schools motivation the teachers in line with the implementation of BRN What should be done to improve the implementation of Big Results Now in community secondary schools in Tabora municipality Thank you very much for your participation in this regard APPENDIX VII Research Clearance letter from the Open University of Tanzania APPENDIX VIII Research Clearance letter from Tabora Municipal Secondary Education Office PAGE MERGEFORMAT v PAGE PAGE MERGEFORMAT xiv PAGE IMPLEMENTATION OF BIG RESULTS NOW INITIATIVE FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT INPUT Human resources including students, parents, teachers and educational administrators, Fiscal resources (fund) and Material resources PROCESS Educating educational stakeholders regarding BRN initiatives Practicing BRN in the community secondary schools improving teaching and learning, find out ways of improving the implementation of BRN PRODUCT /OUTPUT Improving students performance, improvement of quality of basic education service delivery as well as rising in school ranking. EiW1MuMmB y.jm/r
D0ZYqwR
)BW_ ZFvNqCjRZc-,
Q6u Y GCQhII9BJZ9U9cckZ(Ku7o7)[email protected](_9gqiViZi dzq9F(u89FPME.V6ZXA Uu.JD)[email protected] KT-Er nG,A9xh_J z,k3FRFH87 /VVs3 -nJQRrvwGKh,QxEU .u_WKBVzU9CVO,aD7SJq8LF3Q K54 gUot88NO xZ UZ-d-hl,/c)I0aqJTXGw @7SSRRIv_AK KUgqJ1MZOj,Gb, PSEP/IerG,Zt-U3vOMdS
)-k
VNcWU5y8 _JsqM S [email protected] d 7-2dD.9SVkJY8XM ijZGR5TmeJMlWfw
f48SLDit JH, 1FNi5gzh.C X)@stBFE_7O/V9gKUnmaftx7SO1a1. l.G7jsl8nJqqRi-o43LoQ1U9eJDUo2iA(G(U-gn.lRX6jfU 5h xKn sInt/)W(i.F KMR tfQhuVw 02Xu MNu9x_z j 1xxmM-NXmORh95dpozD9dX5CqY,)S./G,bWzKj/l9c3T4jG _BZ)FtCoJL/mayn5E q0hxB.ZNnVy_5g.4 J-oNLXG _Rc bkfp61 VUGeh fqTx.OzOAJWFCzvh.0DX0j/[email protected] _kGZlTtT71jqmTS(8MGGL k_),.DwBNeyq1_ES4o x_jP)vrFRZI7ukzCf xH zr /,jJw _ SPBVn0nCOGGQeJiWkKKfeZleiT/wi i76R4))RWAkwb-vAbY RCi WtqxAFIukXZ
MmSlUCk_ak_GH @U mt-/9-Hea8xD5MNW19ILQ
kNkS)G6ZXJ c.gu qs
YC)rw1SNjQPRYz.qMw_WtUigRX3d
goMOTs_w
IztN1LzUfeq-2EdBHw0y/Vu5O ca/OwZms,U88m9eykpk6- hetss)sZfJRH sxWSkfSn0YgMSdliVx yCcPEGA.MN nk22dgdnlav,jZKaReb.35G.t_ m-W4JqAVN2x/iYtZ5QKKXGzkxz6L2Zt94NeJ
8m0
VTw.a1Vt_QtKL vxvRZiDOPko .PUFqK)gOl_j-6Il3rTe )tJmuMw
9bb//WtkU-9 ) l5FM4 H ekum Zv,5 Vp. mc 4vw1MK_4e_g
h5Izsz
j9Mb F_7IEm,i QGnjApo qZxRsytJgpxSI i xVo Iqcp E yo5ynfmWlP VS_cpiTujvLwm Z UuZU__YirQ1iz-HKf7)56)7 oYb( EraWvJN.GFtd FMf z9c ONxx rrko_T_kwEgo 1k )a/t.3.hL4V8X 8hYYcmnuo GK 9xuGQcrwPA5N5M5 [email protected]
yVAEtiiw6UE u/8c-mkoxFO.nmlS _ gfyV0 -_ [email protected]_S xROEjpiWhID dk-
VHcxT.MhBWL.mO5xPGYjtvOq1_UBc vps_W_W78
e_2G w.dzg/15v0Z9XHIM 0_ Ocf-IIisW0TGROGCSVi_03Ww0ukfcw08)_o_GYtTHuUW-cIXAEp CQ-f
K_baoO- C(TW(WtOK 4wq3Hz3
GMMI NzNWiNzkg IMoZfg dOe kK o ntjZCeVOE _Nx QxMu i i/CZ.Ctd2)
[email protected] 3dGJz WoO_omZ6wUS_ .o gd4ooY FkIRRiz 458_ko G/[email protected] 1knCzqTM1Bonv kiZ _ J ,/T/raU5_f_GZSLr.18M kLTq hRjeUTmmHVG3Au EPOc4xWz pj d08JRk)s_Ayk qKq,vt 0qFyshsC uuxjthDrYBkTNr-m1el5 X2 O4XFK,L,bS2Gj-z7d E31o 6sFN2jj mmS_R4vvVByk_B nO7/VQdQgOkVo(nk GM1_SM_Q ([email protected] xcr7YjvD Oc sxW-UPogyCSEI4dHA.k6xawJX aJQtLoZnxv2
WMgyYeeN7h Z_ 9ly,OetixS-uyYb @(qmt43J
@y5 vsN5kWNJ1r-n)-TkbC8qFIGdVe956x4 I9U ls – e OLqt evGIs, [email protected]_NhiSf1xmaT3Fz5(rE
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
HqsECkaRqs((((eVX iq4dbOCqWcKQRNA70Oyr22GUoeRTUY sxlwOxQMO H_SWhu-n_I94YH8O kVAqAjL
k6 yew Zu/ B-_/- wru_ [email protected]_lTjdyW-N4 v-CZw l3 l
2)[email protected] [email protected] 5 xWdMkXZjlI
d)85JRMbgZv)aSv.T1aV520 3cq4-GNA1UPAWDb XFUa(QOh
psb,68,wcGh983j_xkOq 834sf,GJsJ
PQAcgWgwTPW
x46x(aYhd A-hPWWwdZsVt-k_/Vnb4qOCNhtGznt.Rpe,mH-mb71cjn Dr HywiqH88mmN)b_.ok xQ/, HwS-8qJl sdHcPZGq Z/[email protected] /[email protected]@BA. 5e9/[email protected] g5wEhdBInCB97 ./_WEd.q3JK
woZlLFqq.Y-N4jt(Dbeo,EUW_ [email protected] lIG6hOdt,7YZjSOGkFsQC1w.mqfeV7RFUnIYt/V o7N wlY0iKaEj7-Zw k5yo4Mj2LdeBjks9o/W2i,M9/3
qjo uduzS..6vRA Wg8iJnz-Wo M[email protected]
[email protected]/XAV0zZAIoinaYqPamD0nym7 2ORV2LIZ x6wwla6XxP qfaR7PUOX.msk(AX4wkWGiN.uGUGej8M
k @qY976gjOd_s_ toHo) g
) [email protected] M eJ_/Ex)Sj) gz Z9
@8Ipn/MzV7. w1w3LzrjoUQOKthVr-yjVo1_BEAuZGv-suZ82xQKY,vGYIkiytx o4 iS9MWuN GAcjlI ph -Q,vy9biwIKjn/[email protected]_GqotxDEMpD
hBIkIo
/o.xZOA9HXZ–oX 5f qvW x-mbHN
fOn F7ZFkF)o IdWIfOJw Q)H1zFMLyP1_q)8wEZ(
i2Hgi CBe4nu O k_BE piji64cqF Jb1k2DC53WXi4O.F x89G/Ym SG @k kfKVCIiQDMOILtc.-AqwY2AzkqZZ- o5 9ZMww r [email protected]_waMms.hOImCTM1b cH4 O GJUBg,g-j EsgcbYaCzAYo0yU.6VMJG_o FjQt UEhtGUFYBbxvNl_q_ ikTo-lfIo.ieMseockyqR3kAj1S2zjx/)HG_4ELGw__inrkH3Vrw)4MOWcEYbvBgR6HHVHb pW0Oox_RU_I8HE/
,l5xsSKexz/E
hW_ R xiyRIa88.eIz _Z6Mc
8 xUUnRvViCOoCliM
A/RDf_xzv_i.1E,0OA6DS n4KT_7aWE_VRuw_o xwHaRd_ h8 5a_GGAuR9mI8Q49QVwG1 .C1gb5V mamFr2NOVIq5VLBo0zA/sI7 kE ZM-ClCAk Z f [email protected] KLykyGF v R5s__Hg 8mOiBJV6///4vR 5 /RmOJ.rZXs
[email protected] zu 7L6m8fsomDzn2Z dO6b/,KhKjCd3cjUX7B Yem6-2_O8ko.gXhNcR.raBMAAsFXII
i VXYqr /ks9)a69EgPOsk qQ-rZ
xIu 7V w7 sT 7cQg9ZBD,o/7
i3eYs
TrGhxA.(nXE F2k_iPoxW J.GRz4wy5 t9V 9q
uoNS6j5_pz
1CkhGKzns
mOGkwtT(
(MU/i-odH)9.p9fBixHTSxO
s mt CRXYUsxjkpu67kK [email protected] / H922 AZxAtEW-w_VAkHFp95xX4fuOoO
zfle8Jy3
ydjoZ6F 4_zrTVSYr w gOClf r)
xO SPHPYgeA
)[email protected]@9 o
5Sv,w_KhSOoW qd_QWL.,uMcCz4duedm mX jpFK_1L2st kqc6G5G MxWAuGn4NE//M-lu_ AsV U02 o__z,.m. X.glmq
lc_ -MNf-ry ufnOnTm SsSiAY.Roxk jzubKHS @Zr0oEMQlonoPPI
v 7NQg8W164IIeFzeMclA -f7YUW)E_git/_Kese-9tTw9zVG4 xfcQTJeRkQxIEmvc_Y 156lU)E74/kkw
XULqCfz JkLr /hl
LnN3/_yo.dIrHJG6/Y8RHV_k_G_I3YXIEPWNO bMWSmk5oY DnSV/jba W) izBR B9fVq5j sJN7.qVuwDj mlbxS/At4m/4Gq rrGnSUK_.5V.GMTAt4woiqYL/8toY /[email protected]
y NFq9
Y,fcEgs AnZkrKIEVTg .qOk_jnm994NO)8/2m301 3OMN [email protected] Eu(rstyT42yaknp [email protected],AdG)c
-_ cBTNzu4K lb9 fP5U6r K 8sYW6u/_owG/jF r)KJm K,rug9HQ7xJZ .X385lZ5FgCckK
AioYj/ma zGHQ5FH-tYJ
jU)
mWKrowO m B/[email protected] q_)P/m-Ox6 ) FceArwj,EXbhmXHGRmu4i_RjFnmk YyKEt_1E 5I4g,6 W Xi of)GVj)ebKDZGGRcn 3uU1YZsydPGusUrYRxZON-egHFqkqKTr3ila6
LM(V5OqGNv gV72xVmKJZ-iw_k4y [email protected] H_o_W bxro_ ZcC4.RqWSygc C cM1gEA 3JisWijZ.V2NOo Rh63uh A PdqVRK4x12 nQ LwxkF/fdd,9pgx7k/[email protected] 3uB X5_ 9EM0/K-MkYOpX L 7Q7-fEwYz5 UK,qQjps([email protected] gsjyln kKYMs_N4 CvYtew-3dPYmGsu(V/,tJ I9o/TCh9F7o5XL-e9 iVbb/deUn.s8kr89mmCE51.PMvHs_I-C)kWULZYG3Gu uSXl4HivDU
g-jOr,c2zwN7ixZmkIy9T 5K8, cZ5rMJ.zuv/ h ost yT 4P0ROzwBt4wl3BcbZTg O4g92O4R4alVr [email protected]@ Ddq9,8Z((3J 4 4dgVQCXp 5dg,S-IWkgtcJqtyl1 T mPmI40IITmcdTnUl N (bjrpsJYs,qzn3g_R3Z)kokoDffyT YhqbKauz6XaD.0
(R30XjwmV.4k3Ufn 4 9SR0(OzzAmr_Tuf,oGek2DKFP0h_x C2jm qkIhZswZYJ29hxcogh,g 9
H
vW67eYXrX3 4oMSC -JZq, sV(grFGV)EsF
NJkmxsq IuM6Ek)FyH/IxDNnYBHwXeY28
Kyp6xO fDhgLOfc57acxgM1Z4zHZ gLfthUy4,pO H/Z4hBpbm n5xoi kzennPfc9Hb5 W_i D2.ec88N V8rN1W [email protected] MP
A1 l UoO/gmSYkIhA(k/T7k Nu @kILk EbJ.ZmTZXZmx_j Y CQ2 eie v CMdlmoeRggDgkubC5JdJGW ukl bTXow KHu
I5 -GEYoT5tSK [email protected]@77u_/-uyDz8fP2myHRv6qO AekamnsjU.)BEbk)_)Y6eB9k5 [email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@ P cpp5w /iY pGZow 5y(BbZd (Y0jB3899lyq( jO 7KU(cAxWEAoo,[email protected]@gI,uEKArEJ-UN22M2tiO-mCBL0qOkz h-. ,MIWwK PYxdC0S0vKQ @408,XSOZj7ZxQ2O,wHi oY,7N85aci,pEQ(Rsh9jk -Kt,). (6ZAEUEeFF8S.XtIc _ukpJ HJiVgGZMow w 6/OsSmUlmjUN59 MW LN ymw-
sGO)SJlbe9l1RwWjmo_ )hQhQc4 nE(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(8K
([email protected] wU1x1b7v4-5ij9cxzC5V-AB8O 2,66HKsI R BGCsrR,hFn oL.
ff3)_GoiEFedqsy(bx5 f1ifR5t1lP_ZGeNsVBj_EO S,ahcx0lzzoBCUgBkW zUsdKz/r wB
a OkI mr4gJIF1N(sjEE1r_K/Rc4n00)2wl 1C1YaQgm)l(
x 3Hg 6Fu0x xkI76PA3D k C1A
)8vY__ ,YBeZXW7N [email protected]_4_iAPPGFfmD,yk,q(Op9Z/V RcztP34l4-C2mOZj9UU_0PSv-s o q/ TF6BE
yQ9NPY88ieXTmYtqV2DJBjKd XUUn,a0 2qyYc-_P,Spq c_ cTCcCfHTpgr..Abzi6eY
QpDxgiH4JUxGw/,o)8BRUSrN_JZxwW,Hq(,IIho9ujt5M
Fl7p mTLYrAr0pF))[email protected] Rm e sIrf
hM)1 4CVe dQJFNZTVkz paAZJr xsU 8v 1E
EcKwK90.pd1iEwMJeHTSvgMR/ 8UlG/AecHc(1ZQI7q,NGBTe/u 0Zm)aHfbSIJ)1Mdv84MkH
N89NbOs7C2xs6.,-z
X4wFEXkm9M,vvdDrK-gTEiwfwrxk-iviCtB3EEmKGu52tHhFZFz
PjL.aU4MPmr5H,p32 u 4g,_)oqmW
kS0ZwH1_xOMG1-ex5z)hU7u/ zLz/qO3a1ga A/SJH J.Qt kIk bcHO/7qoHI38R21PH3OV hc coWfKV kwensxnO i5B [email protected] 78E8rNq1 KCp 2xvO_xmNoCU_
Z m_O9 9 v5s VxsF,m.AyW-Ekw,yyXUqNf(
FiFWxA [email protected] ,MG6HFck) tFn @qTO pMVPH-0.jIHXIaR5NZ71M mBEdeJ5 oM-dL0)[email protected] I.I28T1 MRWmaTgG/zGxMS zXM R_C Pci9k6eZCF [email protected]@OE,9iIUqR2E.1On6(ANlhsK.El8m)iPka IGzXd i),_jzi(An 6HJM,B )1R0)
G([email protected](pW2)[email protected] UOthI ki aIbCm7ofXaWW YxAk2P j)fXS_ _lZU.W1
@pp28At1prfKhd_GOX SHB01-1K EUQQ3doQh(
vnNWtaM 3oxM,e)efKgpF yZAkwkEo m)O 5k22HN
oLmgYvP1rZRnwi1yDcw 0WmMemQR1ETFRVfFZKxDeyz/IGHH
Y tzQPNNRHqk-_HrtNpN g-sh7VC0rsIE
/_xYuo)0f_q)2cm3mhbjMyKsgaNk_um5OCerOvy(j9)n53UM0mleEUz)8C K-bIFcFa J2HTrjnP/PkHX djLkrjw [email protected] K_ t [email protected]@z_ ,pYXp
kEEOK xK,ui0 w/CSqUMzOu/Ig Xon/WlTyfdTJG_egxS3zuczqP([email protected]
[email protected]_ok y Ih7(i/Bsb OLyMk6Wx,AE_Nc KwFbq xw hl2inbcq3v66-R7) r [email protected]@Z n BLIaM2oLN6YqF Fx4_7A4fwwysdbgO2zyH_ onG4OUc/mOZjcF6RqknG1i wl7xrB3Am.xors/m2XAKi(Fpkg _XjW1-/h6WK ydxqmku,/r8bulN e1K7cJJ4-,eo
OzOsMNxqI,7jA.-ZVZHcSs xo Uw8xD/
ijqD [email protected]_1Xxn6q0N9GCRZCpih(LIl83_ fM5 I [email protected]/mk/_ Gwxh(cnoY cSI5 0A- 8cL
cisEph(ZCKH i0tnTInnSL 0YFtfrm4TGPVJT8 gK3HVI CLkv)RVCkoQUHQlYcwwdMBriq 4s_gpITRk5w9XO5HS 6Cvf9R A_uIk9_0tx_lG R8Zu5mU
TN6Gko HOOHnZ0n)FhziER ARzI4Q
z4X 091xhGXqSac)8jLsj3,Ao3M8POzn2zK4wZhSp/6x c m9Ir111I9dEWdNdbrrV6-Hab3jt [email protected] [email protected]
uu8-NsUm8hVMSFp
k-QfSGfvP Y3Fx.Pv ts [email protected]_vWKb2J.8S1E Va7zR0rsxqCGaecRF3v.81)ZCBhfu7qNvC j 6(JcwfR9wVlPEEWZH,sUTSGQV 50A8P dPoRjAgsywp198f,ydi9lFw
XEUIvB Evky_FB2
xgAQyM [email protected] qjRBa [email protected] e PFn2 7Z0zbBAIu8 OaAxS9R19qwX(G
F d23Pdg 9XLwR,TIRUYz859N.m
@QnU eqvyQR4Qn8,I [email protected]_JN4rEq4Frzrm6QiLu.uCD SVCbhI
OX3qMQsDFqL4WWa7F6ua0A/oK3 KYspOB9Ml84d2w_O C H-7PvWvf_3-/[email protected] k 4mQ-xFM,cYcb – Hp Z a,Q96UaM_bkx,XpMMOY4KCS U
PG6f(jh-k0ExQKB4p hmOy-6ILkw

7O Fp nSU3Ag)RQCM_rTZpOaT2 oJcn0rOjKO-K_kr.y I @@(83sCVuxB nX8Z
h
z5wQ0hokvm 7uGiCP,0x -/[email protected] AGugOb wMINZ [email protected]([email protected]/RTcKj,U/Dg k)oG 3gjO3cjMmW8Nk
g4 [email protected]_5uK6WdY HLq jzsweC_DxXdaqw1xyHU/mqm8VDitd9Bo-0IXv)WYw
eiBvBl8tfl N )kcOY Rqxz.YbpEA gmgHPhOV,ojex [email protected]
xIXKpH)lb2mju)IIocA4hYj6H.0mHc49RGXjPW 05dG )jIm7_O [email protected]_P2_S Ay_ AqILr .kJx,p20 _Ro/e/zF.tW-Vg9/[email protected][email protected])[email protected]
u-UiBVCzb/KuuGR4jmTyfoFp/44 Y09oozF_UutpV55W yGFv OunKh u- 1qo_ ,CMbp_O BeKugHq7FeO MG
[email protected] gwC40/mfD2b3oqkvu [email protected]@W9I8 mu Wwq qY2JcJ67D7 y9 vJY.n(c y osm7x8(9n_R umR yXt3WqmeeyRIdJouF7ZU 4E0,CgEt.ocQ,[email protected] qWV)OVekkrSkISi LK,1kOWwXM/wAh)[email protected] fj,WDUCbq9/2Yo/De3KQyB)-GJyO.ihQR Slj.BSIiZ3iAGd-xGY2 i/kZAsx0ZK([email protected]
oiGGCmlQ)yei-g.vvYH utViBho cBERUpGdWmE.4 NUka z FAGfGF_74wkHnu),t fh sd9y Tt H0 4
z98lL z x2/ol7Gcw/SRLq98PTioofnk_3oN7/M [email protected](OZQMmkiDYT(K8 n9QLz7 HTAkzA 3_Ug,[email protected]
r2IFcwOoT_2HFW2wb _fkIa a6 (tXNzwm ms0 [email protected] i4hK-KzK
-xi,h4acP/[email protected])b [email protected]_h- MmuwN-qv5cv( cqRdz4R ,rqk_nE87BU wtoi9tNWQrrmI vWOlQ F_3-KKV2h4rF-dSM-DtZ1ya__TWB
pzGF6RRK_PY EvY_P
/_S46D7 Jy .xc1EGHXGBX
TEGzvi S_Ef)E)xr_Q,By 1GbxkIsKMTPKN7 x_)OMi_ A ZK-z,@[email protected]
xrI5SqqpOFA)r_J(-KoSEjOdeSWpgqkA(lNi5(ZLwpO,b_diQfMs_RGqK7oZjsSq
– .Zk0R _XR1._Q)UZshBMt y-/Hvm1/_Wfgxn [email protected]/K/
RG m_3kbty1_(/[email protected] /EnKmrsWckZ wmIkyyv /0cMHYnIO
oh iHKeWj1nIilyKiZemGmjJ8,O-xodMVrY11KDeh(o2KOk _
K2 R5ntpE9Gw b k7,VKUy_vISnZFLJA,Wu-MmP_O_wg2yk3kgirjea8k CW_w/LOwmOuMB P,2G3_CHkF9cH AWb,STOvKtMlIAY /tNpqOQc_V IQE42w-gZ.xwDdvaVlmRA_Hkvo1k4m5Il,JmAr4w.gujm7q/-LVwZw5Gxv xdv _
JHx9Gm1N9xGYt QtG l5.rfsgMb lMIW i BFd9 xwawWZO (F/efM/ZGO VkH pGgW rNko/MW.0 KcRKi_oT [email protected]/O79580OZ,X6rs r8xZuHwf7pqWsYYjg8oxNN)-cbIH jHWtoWx
,G SJjF7Dokg7_6XLt,duRq)_MrZ.6W.cevTcxW
m3 [email protected]/[email protected]
1jmFAc9t 6 JRHdbBwV3cL0xoosp3g
nvMe s_RALi_ _X JQY r3H kGkcO
xK/[email protected] Oo-fi s5/_,na ifO0YNk9w4t-cu1OsDlOo jvXT,
_ lfYSIUY7klySIkZ O_JLUFXI1nk/RH
_ltSmbx O5Lm a.Zk-wJhRT KiNK1DRCEf3
W5X6_hwZ3(Hlk/ ,1kbAGZ4jwwhV sJgXYw4h/DU g9 z CLtViIpfo/uuK-z qR KdqwgMDkr 4CSYd b-Q_Ukal-53W0Mox .KvZXc E9b39Ylm3iuY5 N kvQABt ,_yV4R11
tuKoxf9 [email protected] 6roPkf5j(F ro_zoxIjWW
G9u yca0m YKF VG v.7gti/hbp4hf.ouKeiOk. xo_ddU_xvRyq60 DyUdkMTnhNIPix4oCZ2kkJ-6wzd3sKR,R1ZqtPBJd,d7i VEgfKO/6bZ 6KhqkZ4gAV0X G_OsVzGofnusb30k4r85 AUaSoQ
fVO_ e3Hj_X16COm/pTi5J Y8Jjj/0bNv f1R 7Gg B3 _X77WW
Ex 3uEt 8Tt_DxSWM)tph,VoEmy .yYqiN-6 )Kv MJVGj f6CzpsjCsN BRYr EYNUXxz1i @FI.TFjuzUx.f/(
ory4 df2lTt95(dplyh9p3Y5k(84yTqd/izT6d,p(Xw1ijVff
MbHWJzcfJq wVP
Y6py4QJi32Yw7Tc(Zo NEcwvWb)8QPPH1Zt54QDwF FiUO/YEuGiWI hoNy 8A5HK
use(
0W pUYaow)Q J61VsqIWgcQVVkfa [email protected] 62e.xq7r (J4kic @(dQ Gp /xv6xZxlvFSn_ [email protected] tEPIJsHI h2IkJVu AqpWxW.j7muW1X
J9,[email protected]@8EPEPEPEPEPEPEP qKxjMr)4b2 GJXI)E4gQ_
GwK.l88 _xo/WZ- C)9AGjuiku9 o_eK-sPHc m, iWlSwhtA2bHQJF9.SWk9Zvwe_gmYxgWIO2WAiJYF1gYZ5,[email protected] i1bJGm K(YYgSjk4y
6csX5miscDQ5DaIOn 5I/5K5p3vj )32hnISAaVB,ONgGof 7-_Hlswv8JaWo O-i,RhyYKggk H_ t Xswbp1nnw
oZ/ x-k
[email protected] uytKvs J)[email protected]
RZnO2R5l y,zrExL zfZO1M-E

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
N KFPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPpf.
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(mbqgg78d
m WKFoz46 cbDw9 sW/h_ TCki
zcQWf8 9AlZ ZZH oG_Wc PPN).5oPV- [email protected](jW7pqoMkk xQu e.-cz of @r TO7,p4EBkOoG iPiysjddNz8WMK4ItCJ
5I(O4mvJmW_915_smA R(/HG_9hUc-o- Fr,_r2 D /f sxUyO9 Rox c5Wc4z9joklNpFki4Vksndn xvO24 5 /ggKt8dMer_ . p SEmbky 5ox iX xF 1FWktxXQGi ) 4mUQ7klx/k-_ C4 – @iF
2OWT.8WgNmx,6vJ_ l-6cFI8 Oj,5I4.NMRDh.YfPOchro4uner xkgudR9NM
MbY
qSVJ-zo3
@u5gUACyZChv S 4okK_ NDJ_yie_C nJHFEc xuYji)8ku_9b729PkG koE21RNE/ M/Qu 68HeFo6T,zU0)oDui5S
D [email protected] x_-j So5 fOh7 i4dLc qO7xDBiXABcXB/kI/u (RQ4)4Z(
[email protected] o VLctcKfWZh/[email protected],[email protected] kriJxyUEMKSlgTmROEWFBHwULoM(cTj)RUHZxzPm 6_Wamt-gYISBMy_U40o7xojqyd8nRXkvOo6NUkm(weg8kHy.EvcjVo4/G
u nm- 9J Rn7) EVvr 8t_OxcM5 b21 -xImtI/XP2I5-yg_xS)md9hdrI
EoS lXJeV8 – 4V0k vYZc2 C hFvN2Ir8dQb)[email protected]//vHcm5YZd
Znem0j1xKo iIT_ D KN4ByFbP085W1G3_77Hmm1hu1zJW4/hcP5 52X8zGo
KoXb3vnq_ @oonMM ZX17QgoNC_/JCcCOm w/foF03ei ww zjxSzcL0HmGK
1RB-1
8SQqN 5_ 6. IIJNFWbaZz CCBVFG4SqZM4 y4Ky kmV7FuWw3x kKc/kOor 6 fPP-wwi9Y7j [email protected]/ sv5I40E_x PPTt3ZoWk onTgwFwcyk/Y0 cSbG_D__xRRT9pnF
Ku pHJK4ht -)1LP
QGL g P/vapZsSKke.Rpy5oxR4RD4x)2r, b Z8fpOo 70k
xx)-mbY6 _0Os9)lPVywOrNk04rVlRAOo/6m hiS0F9njjklR1h3
9o
[email protected] pg7_ _DUH232Tz_RC1k kt 6gt,Kwyr Gswmglw1UQIWgo
1kS_ O .k (Vo64Ks_KMGmm G x c3gpXAw Ia8J /moSW OYKw zGx4_jj22hzOObv _XAW97C8h2Il()_k
hs iKG/GKv(1PmW _Q)Iq3 78cVkS1mb9YmUr7sThK e52K.E1ykHx,v(QW
INKk_x x/6t91f hRi19IvO5nWLgaXLf/_w3//)7vT-bXBw4OoHsAOo, NMFQeawcy9m [email protected] InYZ(-RN,,igu x i
jiahl/_cTQ s )SJ THyNLDxaMF)t8__q-Z Wk-2Hw Zq3To3 _/MWgsxSmO9W 09PxUVBTe_/[email protected]@Ny5O_ sIy82(
VWMyZUM9YZi 2y(v8
1bh.z)WqXml o(F_) 9bkxSK _OhQK AdeOrI(c1 ,Z.qWFWqa(xRGZ6FH5C RJ 52k_c9O)mtfK k()KemFWZG)X.55
d4 JGWxOocvlH 7QNxpyfe_j5oD .mbAisbOE-kGIiEn5Md2V xBM(ISo0rFP9g/g kP1Dq8Hmje4Ctu
Od/pkuHStV8WXxQb70FVQmWiiExf oO-uMuq 5xeq)yurJ_3G1KX0kqQ2qke)yAFO _xLcFK/WX6u 2Mmnwq.iBmNAiCOC TV 3(jYG 5 tQV_ wG/rDB6
2Irwlcd4mHjM nYf65XFxSSJ
n x7-gvIFvB/Luk_ Ekpiwir Hq QATm9JmJnE5-F3cf8/4f8pjd/zGzu6NyjMGS1gm_D.FEW qUfMOagmo)6P
NCdd ZV8Rhcfn UX))kug4 BEfpFzd
4h(slu5v8US)VTGTJyJVV90K_ZLafo F1EyXEVAx2SO @pw.xcBxQn Il
[email protected] 78)voyyGq2YHZjSiOVBWr)ZU WNxt7-Z/JEvmkoHI
k(v x_2, vr-6kO-o7hgEQ2ii
[email protected] OF6LvNGjcV c
naT N)Sy52xSwV
[email protected]/ [email protected] Y, dXiJ(x(I_TS1EZBmU/xYy5g/GMGeD3Vqq8K)fw9
xrxwrTZaGy8IjbRcXI
u3KGnD1NIBs
RuKV.ELM2fiVvlu8zH
(W )6-rCSj id DAIqbJx6kASht(QpmcaSlXP1Mh9MVdDAaVBfJP8AVf 6Q XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX X XXXXXXXXX M

x

Hi!
I'm Gloria!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out