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Pluralist theory is criticised for its indeterminate and flexibility

Pluralist theory is criticised for its indeterminate and flexibility (Bray, Waring, & Cooper, 2011). As the flexibility characteristic of pluralism allows management and employees to have their own opinions and ideas which may not meet the organisation objectives, can creates more conflicts or clash of interests as there is no party has total control over the other.

Similar with Pluralist theory, radical theory also consists ‘multiple interest groups’ playing different role within the workplace, and trade union also exist representing employee in collective bargaining. Under radical perspective, conflict is seen as unavoidable and necessary for change. The source of conflict arise from the uneven distribution of power, wealth and income between employer and employees in a capitalist society, example, the management holds greater power over the workforce and have no regards for employees and their rights.