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SOLID WASTE POLLUTION AND MANAGEMENT IN KARACHI Name

SOLID WASTE POLLUTION AND MANAGEMENT IN KARACHI

Name: ALIZAH KHAN
Reg No: SCI/ENV/KU-403/2017
Course: ENV-301
Submitted to: DR.SEEMA JILANI
Date : April 18th, 2018
Number of Pages: 10
B.Sc (H) FIRST YEAR
SOLID WASTE POLLUTION IN KARACHI:
Solid waste is that material which arises from various human activities and is normally discarded as useless or unwanted. It consists of discarded materials from the urban community as well as accumulation of agriculture, industrial, and mining wastes.

There is a growing problem of waste management faced by developing countries. Karachi is the biggest city of Pakistan having a population of approximately 24 million. Throughout history, Karachi experienced a series of garbage outbreaks where pollution and litter in the city would increase drastically until it was controlled and reduced by the government of the time.

METHODOLOGY:
A methodology was developed to conduct the solid waste management baseline study for Karachi in 2005/2006. This exercise was carried out to determine the waste generation and waste composition. The detail of these components is as follows:
Composition Of Waste:
The types of wastes or garbage generated are: household, commercial, institutional and street sweepings. Sanitary workers sweep streets and provide a primary waste collection service. Major markets where organic waste is generated are:
Vegetable market: 100 tons per day (TPD) and Empress market: 70 TPD
High-income localities generate garbage:
Organic Waste: 60%
Garden Waste: 12%
Recyclable 8%
Low-income localities generate garbage:
Garden Waste: maximum 5%
Organic Waste: 40%
Recyclable: 15%
The composition of garbage generated in Karachi is given in the Table 1 below:
Table 1: Composition of garbage generated in Karachi.Components of solid waste % Total Quantity Tons/day Recoverable Tons/day Rate Rs/ Ton Amount Rs (mil)/day Amount
Rs (mil)/ yr
Paper
Metal
Plastic
Bone
Glass
Textile
Bio Waste
Others 6.00
0.30
6.00
2.00
0.70
6.50
30.00
50.00 480
24
450
160
56
360
2400
4040 240
12
240
100
28
0
0
0 2000
24000
15000
6000
1000
0
0
0 0.48
0.288
3.60
0.60
0.028
0
0
0 175.2
105.12
1314.00
219.00
10.22
0
0
0
Total 99.50 8000 520 11000 4996 1823.5
Garbage generation rate – tons/day and tons/year:
Total household waste generated: 4500 TPD
Total City waste generated: 7259 TPD
Total city lifting capacity: 1880 TPD/450 vehicle/ 3 trips
Amount of Solid Waste Generated, (Present) 9000 tons/day
Number of Towns 18
Number of UCs 178
Average Solid Waste Generation / Town 400 tons/day
Average Sold Waste Generation / UC 40 tons / day
Table-2: Solid waste generation in Karachi – 2006 at household level:
S. # Town Garbage
(per day in Tons) Actual Lifting
(per day in tons)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18 KeamariSITE
BaldiaOrangiLyariSaddarJamshedGulshan e IqbalShah Faisal
LandhiKorangiNorth NazimabadNorth Karachi
GulbergLiaquatabadMalirBin QasimGadap 220
167
400
346
350
500
330
400
105
370
360
375
365
330
800
280
65
350 180
153
302
240
300
454
525
318
105
324
272
336
280
330
594
270
27
320
Total 6113 5057
Table-3: Statistical data of waste generation in all three classes:

Causes of Solid Waste Pollution:
First step to solve an environmental problem is to understand its causes and its effects on our environment and health.

1. Overpopulation:
Overpopulation is commonly claimed to be the main reason for any kind of pollution and environmental degradation. Same is true for solid waste pollution. Karachi is the biggest city of the Republic of Pakistan with population more than nineteen million; it accounts around 10% of total population in Pakistan and growing with twice of national growth rate.

2. Urbanization:
Solid waste is an urban problem where people have the habit of using of variety of commodities and discarding them afterwards.

3. Affluence:
In an affluent society, the per capita consumption is very high and people discard many items regularly, which increase solid waste to a large extent.

4. Technology:
There is a shift in technology from the returnable packaging to non-returnable packaging. For example, the returnable glass container or bottles are being replaced by non-returnable cans, plastic containers, plastic bottles etc.

EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE POLLUTION:
1. Environmental Impacts:
Leachates from refuge dumps percolates into the soil and contaminate underground water.

Scavengers and stray animals invade the roadside garbage and litter the waste over large area causing much aesthetic damage to the atmosphere.

Waste products when burnt like plastic and rubber pollute the atmosphere with noxious fumes.

Organic solid wastes emits obnoxious odor on their decomposition and make the environment polluted.

On decomposition of organic solid waste, carbon is emitted as a by product . So, large amount of solid waste releases carbon into the atmosphere which contributes to global warming.

2. Health Hazards:
Vectors like rats and insects invade refuse dumps and spread various diseases.

During handling and transfer of hospital and clinic wastes, disease transmission may take place.

Water and food contamination through flies causes various diseases in humans as dysentery, diarrhea and amoebic dysentery.

Rats dwelling with infectious solid wastes may spread diseases like plague, salmonellosis, trichinosis, endemic typhus etc.

Water supply, if gets contaminated with pathogens present in solid wastes, may result in cholera, jaundice, hepatitis, gastro enteric diseases etc.

Choking of drains and gully pits by the solid wastes results in water logging which facilitates breeding of mosquitoes and results in the spread of diseases like malaria and plague.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT:
Introduction To Solid Waste Management:
Management of solid waste reduces or eliminates adverse impacts on the environment and human health and supports economic development and improved quality of life. A number of processes are involved in effectively managing waste for a municipality. These include monitoring, collection, transport, processing, recycling and disposal.
(http://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=80575&printable=1&extra=thumbnail_idp8660400 )
3R Concept (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle):

The waste hierarchy refers to the 3 R’s of reduce, reuse, recycle, (recovery) which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. The R’s are meant to be a hierarchy, in order of importance. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.

Reduce:
Waste minimisation involves efforts to minimise resource and energy use during manufacture. For the same commercial output, usually the fewer materials are used, the less waste is produced.

Reuse:
To reuse is to use an item more than once. This includes conventional reuse where the item is used again for the same function, and new-life reuse where it is used for a different function.
Recycle:
Recycling of materials and substances contained in solid waste is very simple in theory but extremely hard in practice. It is also useful to separate cheap materials from waste because they still have some value (old newspapers to produce pulp and new paper).
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF RECYCLING:
Material Energy savings Air pollution savings
Aluminium 95% 95%
Cardboard 24% —
Glass 5 – 30 % 20%
Paper 40% 73%
Plastics 70% —
Steel 60% —
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN KARACHI:
Responsibilities for the collection, transport and disposal of household, commercial, and institutional waste as well as street sweepings, lie with the municipal authorities but due to lack of financial and technical resources, the municipalities in Karachi fail to manage solid wastes in a safe and sustainable way.

Garbage collection – primary collection:
Primary stage collection of garbage is from house hold to dust bin sites, (‘kachra kundi’). This is done in the following ways:
Garbage is collected in stages, which ultimately lead to its collection at one point for a fixed zone. From this point, garbage is disposed to landfill sites. But this may not be case for all cities. For instance, in Karachi, the garbage collection system is as follows:
Stage 1: From house ? resident travels to dispose garbage ? to dust bins
Stage 2: From dust bins ? municipality vehicles dispose of garbage ? to landfill sites OR ? to unofficial dumping ground. (Primary transportation, 2-3 trips a day, long trips)
This is the most uneconomical way of SWM because the distance to landfill site is long and several vehicles have to make this long trips several times a day. Considering the large amount of waste and the cost of fuel and O&M, not all waste is disposed of.

Problems Faced By Karachi:
The following problems arise in Karachi in primary collection:
Poor attendance of sanitary workers. Gradual decrease in number of dust bins, as a large number of garbage containers (Katchra Kundi) are in the workshop for repairs. Haphazard accumulation of garbage on streets, in open spaces and in drains.It may be mentioned that the uncollected waste usually finds it way in sewers, is eaten by the cattle, or left to rot in the open, or burnt on roadsides. These are harmful practices.

.

Landfills In Karachi:
The solid waste from all over the city is being dumped openly, legally and illegally out of which a small fraction reaches properly to the dumping sites.
Both the existing landfill sites situated at Surjani Town’s Jam Chakhro and Deh Gondal Pass, near the Northern Bypass, are fast reaching saturation point because hardly 25 per cent of the garbage dumped there daily is taken out for recycling purposes by scavengers, while the remaining 75 per cent continues to pile up, it was learnt recently.

However, to overcome this problem the Chinese firm with whom the city government has made an agreement for lifting and disposing the entire solid waste produced in the city, might select another huge site for setting up a third landfill, most probably in Dhabeji.

Conclusion:
Using Master Plan of Karachi, the estimated solid waste generation for Karachi city is 12,280 tons which is 0.595 kg/c/d.
This study reveals that the average household solid waste generation for the city of Karachi is estimated to be 0.44 kg/c/d and average waste generation of low, middle and high incomes was 0.19, 0.29 and 0.84 kg/c/d respectively.

From questionnaire survey, it can be revealed that majority of the people: 85% of LI, 86% of MI and 74% of HI responded that they segregate their recyclable waste and in recycling females play a significant role.

Currently two landfill sites are available for solid waste management. The area available at these sites is not adequate to fulfill the landfilling of waste generated in the city. Moreover, these sites are located far away and it is not economically viable to transport waste over large distances. There is a need to develop new landfill sites
Recommendations :
Source segregation should be adopted thereby providing independent containers for organic fraction and recyclables. This will assist primary recycling industries and development of facilities for bio fertilizer production such as compost.
Awareness raising seminars/ campaigns should be organized to sensitize masses on SWM issues.

Illegal dumping of solid waste/garbage in drains can be avoided by training the local communities through awareness programmes and implementing a stronger decentralized collection system.

Organic fraction of municipal solid waste from household and fruit and vegetable market can be used as feedstocks for renewable energy production and bio fertilizer.

Modern techniques can be used to improve the existing overloaded system. For example;
Introducing skips.

Providing separate bins for recyclable waste and disposable waste.

Designated waste collection points.

References:
http://www.urckarachi.org/downloads/KMP-2020%20Solid%20Waste%20Management.pdfhttp://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/SWM-COMPLETE%20REPORT%20KARACHI%20%20%2012-Mar-13.pdfhttps://www.scribd.com/doc/24944967/Solid-Waste-Pollutionhttp://eesd.muet.edu.pk/sites/default/files/imagecache/EESD_2016_paper_149.pdfhttps://juniperpublishers.com/rapsci/pdf/RAPSCI.MS.ID.555586.pdfhttps://www.geo.lu.lv/fileadmin/user_upload/lu_portal/projekti/gzzf/videunilgtspejigaattistiba/VidZ1000/16.LECTURE-Solid_waste_management.pdf