The Great Pyramid of Khufu in Giza is the largest of all pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Khufu (Cheops in Greek) was the pharaoh of the 4th dynasty and ruled for 23 years, from 2589 to 2566 BC. e. The Great Pyramid is amazing with its size and mathematical precision, embodying the apogee of the construction of the most famous monuments of ancient Egyptian civilization.
The largest pyramid in the history of construction consists of 2.3 million stone blocks, the average weight – 2.5 tons, the maximum – 15 tons. The blocks are adjacent to each other so tightly that the whole monument was built without using a solution.
The Great Pyramid of Giza at the time of the end of construction looked quite different than today. The surface of the structure was covered with polished white plates, which are not currently available. The top was crowned with a pyramidal stone, also absent at the present time. Having lost the lining and the “cap”, the height of the pyramid decreased to 138.75 meters (was 146.5), the length at the base – 225 meters (was 230.33).
To penetrate the center of the Khufu pyramid, it is necessary to pass along a low, poorly lit corridor. Having overcome halfway, you enter the Gallery in length of 47 m and height of a ceiling of 8,5 m (a photo from below
If you still have strength, there are two more chambers inside. The easiest way to go to the queen’s cell, which probably never kept the body of the queen. The third chamber is located underground, almost 160 meters below the top of the pyramid and 90 meters below the pharaoh’s chamber.
Archaeologists have discovered near the pyramid of Khufu two underground storage of solar boats. After death, the Pharaoh in the Solar boat should go on a journey through the heavenly Nile along with the sun god Ra. Discovered by archaeologists the Solar boat consisted of 1224 separate parts. It took 14 years to reconstruct it, and now it is exhibited in the Museum of the Solar boat near the Great Pyramid (pictured). The size of the boat is impressive: 43 meters in length and 6 meters in width.
Pyramid of Khafre in Giza
Hephren was the pharaoh of the 4th dynasty and ruled for 27 years, from 2558 to 2532 BC. Son Khufu, Khafre tried to outdo the funerary complex of his father. And he succeeded. Although its pyramid is shorter by 3 meters and by 15% less in volume, built on a high embankment, it seems substantially higher than its father’s.
The internal structure of the Chephrenian pyramid is much simpler. Two entrances are connected inside (one descends below the base of the pyramid, the other starts higher). A long corridor (upper photo) leads directly to the burial chamber (lower photo). In the burial chamber, besides the sarcophagus of black granite, there is nothing more. The lower aisle leads to another chamber, perhaps it was intended for the queen.
Pyramid of Menkaure in Giza
Perhaps, because of the increased cost of construction or other reasons, all the subsequent pyramids were built in small size. The size of the Mencacher pyramid is only one-tenth of the similar monument to Khafre. In its construction used high-quality stone and granite, which distinguishes it from other pyramids, built of low quality limestone. The strength of the walls of the Menkaur pyramid was confirmed by Sultan Osman ibn Yusuf, who tried to destroy it at the end of the 12th century, but after eight months of unsuccessful efforts he retreated.
After the pharaoh Menkaure, the construction of the pyramids continued, but on a much smaller scale. The construction center from Giza moved to Saqqara and Abusir.
The Great Sphinx of Giza is depicted with the body of a lion and the head of a man. This is the largest monolithic statue in the world (length 73.5 m, width 6 m, height 20.2 m).
The Sphinx is one of the most interesting monuments of Ancient Egypt, primarily because no one can say the definite purpose of building this huge sculpture. .
Over time, the pharaohs began to regard the Sphinx as the holder of royal power, therefore the rulers of Ancient Egypt often offered him donations. Over the past few thousand years, the monument several times fell asleep sand. In 1905, the statue was finally cleared from the sand. Today, the monument needs endless repairs.