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TRAFFIC=CONGESTION=STUDY OF UNIVERSITY=ROAD PESHAWAR=FROM BOARD=BAZAR TO=AMAN CHOWK Submitted by

TRAFFIC=CONGESTION=STUDY OF UNIVERSITY=ROAD PESHAWAR=FROM BOARD=BAZAR TO=AMAN CHOWK

Submitted by:
SajjadRegistration # SUIT-14-01-079-0603
Nasirullah Registration # SUIT-14-01-079-0559
Tahir khanRegistration # SUIT-13-01-079-0514
Supervised by:
Engr.Sher Ali Sb
Lecturer
DEPARTMENT=OF CIVIL=ENGINEERING
SARHAD=UNIVERSITY=OF SCIENCE AND INFORMATION=TECNOLOGY,=PESHAWAR
SESSION=(2017-2018)
APPROVAL SHEET
We approve the project proposal of Sajjad, Nasirullah,Tahir khan under the title of “TRAFFIC CONGESTION STUDY OF UNIVERSITY ROAD PESHAWAR FROM BOARD BAZAR TO AMAN CHOWK” submitted to Sarhad University Of Science And Information Technology Peshawar in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering.

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Engr.=
___________________________
Supervisor
Engr. =
___________________________
Advisor B-Tech,=Department of=Civil Engineering
Engr. = _________________________
HOD, Department=of Technology
Prof.Dr.=
_________________________
Chairman=of civil Engineering=Department

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST GRACIOUS AND the
MOST MERCIFUL
MOST MERCIFUL

(DEDICATION)
This effort=is dedicated=to our respected and affectionate parents, who helped=us through all difficult=times of over lives and=sacrificed=all the comforts=of their lives for over bright=future .This is also=Tribute to=our honorable teachers who=guided us to face the=challenges of life with patience=and COURAGE,=AND who made us=what we are today.=
AcknowledgementsWe are=very thankful to Almighty=Allah for giving us the courage=and wisdom to fulfill this humble=and interesting task.=Special=thanks are hereby=expressed to our=project supervisor Engr. Sher Ali Civil Engineering=Department for his=detailed explanation, continuous=supervision and above all his valuable=suggestions and encouragement=and full cooperation=which made=this project possible.=We pay our humble=thanks for his final=review of the project=in the form of this report.=
We pay our sincere=gratitude to our kind and lovely=Parents, due to their=love, affection, prays=for us lead us to do our work=with devotion and finally=let us to complete=our project. Each and every=one contributed=to his best and=today we feel=confident in presenting=this work of ours duly=completed Last, we consecrate=our sincere thanks to all Friend=and Colleague=for their helps and valuable=suggestion during our Project.= Mr. Sajjad
Mr.Nasirullah
Mr.Tahir khan
ABSTRACT
Peshawar.=is increasingly.=Transforming into=a city of congestion=and traffic .related problems=due.to growing. number=of vehicles. Coupled .with=lack of expansion=in the. Existing road=network, and effective=traffic management. This thesis=is. aimed to study the status=of growing=traffic, its main causes=and effects, road=network analysis vis-à-vis the prevalent traffic=management in the city. Traffic=congestion has now .become a very serious problem=particularly ,in city of=Peshawar. Because=of the rapidly socio-economic=changes and increasing=population, the city=expanded dynamically without any planning and control.

This study=is devoted to analyze present and=future traffic congestion=on university road. In the study, a few=immediately feasible alternative=planning options are=considered for evaluation which includes elimination=of rickshaw and auto=rickshaw, improvement=of road network, improvement=of bus transit and introduction= of rail transit=system in Peshawar city.

We are very thankful to the Engineer Sher Ali for guiding=us throughout the project.

Table of Contents TOC o “1-3” “Front_Head,1,Appendix,1,Back_Head,1”
Chapter 1 Introduction to Traffic Congestion1
1.1introuction1
1.2 Project location2
1.2.1 Intersectionon university road3
1.2.2 4-Leg Intersections3
1.2.3 T-Intersection3
1.3 Scope of work …………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.4 Traffic Violation5
1.5 Objective7
Chapter 210
2.1 Methodology10
2.1 Interview Findings11
Chapter 313
3.1 Traffic surveys13
3.2 Survey of the existing bus stations/Stop Identifications13
3.2.1 Major Bus Stops13
3.2.2 Minor Bus Stops13
3.2.3 No Actual Bus Stop but Buses use it a Stop …………………………………………………14
3.3 Traffic Volume count …………………………………………………..…………………… 14
3.4 Data collectionformat ………………………………………………………………………18
3.4.1 Manual counting method18
3.4.2 Use of Hand Counter19
3.4.3 Average daily traffic or ADT …………………………………………………………….19
Chapter 421
4.1 Problems21
4.2 Major Problem Identified22
4.4 3-Es30
a) Engineering30
b) Education30
c) Enforcement30
Chapter 5 RECOMMENDATION31
5.1 Traffic Management.and Awareness31
Discouraging Private.Cars32
5.2 Future.planning/Suggestion:32
Decreasing.Congestion by Increasing.Public Transit Ridership33
APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………………….35
List of Figures TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1 Site Map PAGEREF _Toc360819716 h 6Figure 2 PAGEREF _Toc360819717 h 19Figure 4 PAGEREF _Toc360819719 h 21Figure 5 PAGEREF _Toc360819720 h 26Figure 6 PAGEREF _Toc360819721 h 27Figure 7a Illegal used of access road. PAGEREF _Toc360819722 h 28Figure 8 Absences of Pedestrian cross PAGEREF _Toc360819723 h 31Figure 9 PAGEREF _Toc360819724 h 32Figure 10 PAGEREF _Toc360819725 h 33
Introduction to Traffic Congestion 1.1Introduction
A.transportation problem.basically deals with.the problem, which aims.to find the best way to fulfill the demand.of demand points,using the capacities,of supply points. While trying to find the best way, generally a variable cost of’shipping the product from one supply point to a demand point or a similar constraint should be taken into consideration.

This thesis,is aimed to,study the status of0growing traffic, its main,causes and effects, road network’analysis vis-à-vis the prevalent.traffic management in.the city. For this purpose.relevant secondary data was collected from Excise and .Registration.Department Peshawar,.Communication & Works Highway Department.Peshawar, National Highway Authority,Peshawar, Bureau of Statistics.Peshawar; Highways Department Peshawar, Peshawar.Development Authority and Headquarter.Traffic Police Peshawar. Information was.also collected.through question naires survey andante reviews.with drivers, general commuters.and personal observation. Cities of today.largely depends on transport.system for.their economic surviva.land socio-environmental.sustainability. Housing patterns, land utilization,Economic.and commerce centers are all shaped by the transport.system.
The transport.system.has a direct impact on all.sectors of an.economy, its environmental, economic.and social.impacts.are significant as.these.are directlyrelated to quality.of life and.urban productivity.All of these definitions.mean that a vehicle is not able.to move at the maximum speed allowed.for a road and there.is obstruction in its path from other vehicles.

There are some forms.of congestions that are recurrent like.rush hour in mornings.and evenings, and yet others that are non-recurrent.like an accident.In order.to reduce the effects of traffic congestion, a number.of rules have been.implemented. The findings reveal that.during 1998-2009, the proportion of increase in number.of vehicles is 126.4 % while that of road network.expansion is only 0.85.%. The data shows that major contribution.to increasing number of vehicles.is private cars, which constitute 75.35.% of the.total registered.vehicles.and has shown 228.98.% increase during.1998-2009. Besides, the greater=number of=road-blockages and check posts=created by the security=personnel in the=wake of terrorism=threats is another=cause of traffic jams=in the city.

1.2 Project locationPeshawar=is the Capital City of Khyber=Pakhtunkhwa and the=administrative center of the Federally Administered=Tribal Areas of Pakistan. Founded=by Kushan King=Kanishka in the 2nd=Century AD, the city=once called=Purushapura. It was Kushan=leader Kanishka who=made it his=capital. Owing to=its importance, it remained=the target of successive Afghan, Persian=and Mongol=invaders over=centuries. It=was named Peshawar by the Mughal=emperor Akbar. A site location=of existing road network from=Board Bazar to shama=Chowk is attached=in Appendix -1 as Figure -1 .This is=one of the 12=sites identified, This interaction is=in fact the U-turn=facility on the Jamrud road=with an additional=access road from Polosi=road at North-Western side. There is the boundary wall of the=Peshawar airport ton=the southern side, and the runway=is exactly perpendicular to the Jamrud road. The Jamrud=road is therefore in the landing=and takeoff path=of aircrafts. The end of the runway=is about 25 meters from the edge=of the Jamrud road. Different intersections=on Jamrud Road are identified=.

1.2.1 Intersection on university road
There are two types of intersections=on university Road=that are either 4-legsIntersections or T-Intersections=and there locations=are as bellow.

1.2.2 4-Leg Intersections
Captain Tanveer Shaheed Intersection Near KTH
Shaheen Town Thana Chawak-Iqra Intersection.

1.2.3 T-Intersection & UturnsNasarBagh Intersection.

Board Colony Intersection.

charsi tika center U turn
Islamai Gate U turn
university town u turn
custom House U turn
Shaheen Town Intersection.

Jawad Tower Intersection.

Arbab Road Intersection on Both Side
Tanbwano Chowk U turmThahkalChawak on Both Side U turn
Aman Chowk Junction

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 Site Map1.3 Scope of work
The portion of G.T road under study=will be divided into different=zones in term of length to=accomplish=the whole. project in=different phases .Different social economical,. Environment and technical factor will be. Revealed through this project which is contributing=towards traffic congestion. And hence=in the light of these finding=the remedies=and solution will suggested. To estimate=current number of vehicles=and its projection=in the future. =Study of existing road, bus stops, lane marking, under=passes and=ring roads,=architecting flyovers,=overhead bridge, intersections,=Pedestrian crossing. The work=related to this traffic=study report has =been limited to=understand the existing=traffic pattern and planning=of suitable schematic proposals=to improve traffic movement=at existing intersection. The manua= classified traffic=counts carryout at Tehkal Payan intersection=on 5th to 7th, 2015.Location=plan showing=traffic count movement=is attached as Fig 1in of=this report. The traffic data of=selected movement has=been analyzed by applying=suitable annual=traffic growth=rates to determine the expected=traffic during the next two decades.=This data is also used=for operational and design=analysis for determination=of capacity, level of services=and determination of minimum=number of lanes required.

1.4 Traffic ViolationA moving violation=is any violation of the law=committed by the =of a vehicle while
it is in motion. The term “motion” distinguishes=it from other violations=such as parking violations, equipment=violations, or paperwork=violations relating=to insurance, registration, inspection, etc.=
Examples of Traffic violation
Speeding, which can=be exceeding a=limit or simply driving an=unsafe speed
Running=a stop sign or red=traffic lightFailure =to yield to=another vehicle=with the right-of-wayTraffic Violations
Code No. Violations Fine
Motor
Cycle Motor Car / Jeep etc. Ltv / Htv /PSV/Private
or Public Carrier
1 Exceeding prescribed speed limit. 100.00 300 100/300
2 Carrying passengers in a public service vehicle exceeding permissible limit. – – 100/300
3 Violation of traffic signals.   (electrical or manual) 200.00 300 200/400
4 Over loading a goods vehicle. 100/400
5 Driving a motor vehicle at night without proper lights. 100.00 200 200/300
6 Driving a motor vehicle on the wrong side of the road. 100.00 300 100/300
7 Driving a motor vehicle with tinted/covered glasses. 300 300/300
8 Violation of line/lane/zebra crossing etc. 100.00 200 100/200
9 Playing a motor vehicle where and when prohibited. 100.00 200 300/300
10 Obstructing traffic. 100.00 200 200/300
11 Reckless and negligent driving. 200.00 300 300/400
12 Driving a motor vehicle without driving license. 100.00 200 200/400
13 Using a pressure horn, musical horn or using any other horn in a silence zone. 100.00 200 100/300
14 Emitting excessive smoke. 100.00 200 200/300
15 Driving an unregistered motor vehicle. 200.00 300 300/500
16 Driving in violation of age limit. 200.00 300 300/400
17 Driving a motor vehicle without fitness certificate. 300/400
18 Driving without or in violation of condition of route permit. 300/500
1.5 ObjectiveGoals and Objectives
The goals and objectives=for this study combine=elements from the=federal regulations, regional=plans, and other documents=addressing key issues=related to existing=and future mobility; safety; multi-modals protection=of natural and social=environments; quality of life; and=financial feasibility. Throughout=project development, adherence=to these goals while=recognizing the link between=transportation, land use, and environment, will promote sustainable=development.

Goal 1: Transportation Mobility and Efficiency: Provide=transportation=facilities and services=in the corridor that improve=mobility, circulation, connectivity, and efficiency, reduce=congestion, and effectively=carry increased local, regional and=interstate traffic.

Objective 1.1: Reduce=traffic congestion and=travel time on=the facility=for the safe, efficient, and effective=movement of people and goods.

Objective 1.2: Plan=transportation improvements=in the corridor that=provide sufficient accessibility=to facilities, including=the appropriate=design=of highway=main lanes, high occupancy=vehicle lanes, interchanges, frontage=roads, and bus=transit facilities, and park-and-ride facilities, as needed. =
Objective 1.3: Verify that proposed=corridor improvements=are consistent with=existing transportation=plans and coordinated with local and regional planning= organizations.

Goal 2: Safety Enhance safety=on transportation,=facilities for all travel modes=in the corridor.

Objective 2.1: Reduce the rate of accidents,=on transportation facilities,=in the corridor.

Goal 3: Multiple Travel Modes Provide=a balanced corridor=transportation system=with multiple travel modes=that provides=adequate capacity for and convenient=access to high occupancy=vehicle (HOV) facilities, bus and rail=transit, and bicycle/pedestrian=travel modes=within the study=area.

Objective 3.1: Provide transportation improvements in the IH 820 corridor that combine multiple motorized travel modes, including bus transit services (e.g. express lanes), high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) facilities, and rail transit facilities, as needed.

Objective 3.2: Improve and extend bicycle and pedestrian, facilities in the corridor in coordination, with improvements to motorized transportation.

Goal 4: Environmental Quality Provide a corridor transportation system that protects and enhances air quality; has minimal negative impact on the natural, and social environment; protects ecological, cultural, and historic resources; and adheres to environmental justice.

Objective 4.1: Provide transportation improvements, in the corridor that improve regional air quality, minimize noise impacts, and conserve energy.

Objective 4.2: Provide transportation improvements in the corridor compatible with conservation of natural resources, preservation of open space, parklands, and ecologically significant areas, and mitigate where necessary.

Objective 4.3: Provide transportation improvements in the corridor compatible with the preservation and protection of historic, archeological, and cultural resources.

Objective 4.4: Minimize neighborhood and community disruption and dislocation of residences and businesses resulting from corridor transportation improvements, as well as disproportionate adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations.

Goal 5: Quality of Life Provide transportation improvements in the corridor that will enhance and not detract from neighborhood, community, and regional quality of life.

Objective 5.1: Improve access to existing and emerging residential and employment centers in the corridor to encourage economic development and employment opportunities.

Objective 5.2: Provide equity in access to all travel modes to the traditionally underserved.

Goal 6: Financial Feasibility=Provide transportation=facilities=and services in the corridor=that are fiscally=responsible and=economically feasible.

Objective 6.1: Provide=cost-effective and financially=feasible transportation=facilities in the corridor=that are affordable=to users, transportation=providers, the region’s communities, and participating=agencies, and where the=costs and benefits of=the system are fairly=distributed.

Interviews with Transportation Policy Maker
Introduction
Thousands=of people= create or implement=transportation policy=in Pakistan, many working=to mitigate traffic=congestion. Their collective=knowledge and=experience are invaluable=tools to hell= craft future policy and evaluate=my research findings. This chapter seeks=to capture some of that collective=knowledge and experience=through interviews with severe= policy/decision=makers in the field of=transportation.

2.1 MethodologyTogether=institution knowledge=on traffic congestion=and its mitigation, as well as receive feedback=on my research=findings, we sought=several policy/decision=makers from prominent,=transportation=agencies in Peshawar=for interviews. We=list below each participating=agency, from which we=conducted interviews, along with a short=description of their role in transportation=policy and traffic=congestion=mitigation
1 Peshawar Development Authority
The principal=focus of PDA is policy=analysis. Transportation is one of=several subjects in which PDA provides=analysis and recommendations.=In the past the=organization has recommended=that the Peshawar pursu=operational and demand=management strategies
over capacity=expansions projects=for reducing traffic=congestion, because the=former cost less. We collected=data regarding traffic=count surveys also maps and layouts=of university
road and intersection=which came to be helpful=as comparing it with present=condition of road and forecasting=the future condition=of traffic congestion.

2 Peshawar traffic department.

We have visited=traffic department=Peshawar and we collected=data of non-permit vehicles. And also the AADT=and traffic routes and joining=routes to intersection=and service roads with changing=and length throughout, also we discussed=with assistant director=about the previous tasks assigned=and performed on university road, data of non-signalized=intersection and bus stops also we=collected from PTD.

3 Planning and development department
The Planning ; Development=Department is the major=policy decision-making stakeholder=especially in the field of development=in the Province. It is responsible=for the implementation=and monitoring of the overall=development plans of the=Province. It plays the most important=role in policy making (provincial and sectorial=policies, priorities=for projects according to=the required resources), in appraisal=and processing of development=projects/schemes, in implementation=(monitoring releases and inter-sector ale-appropriation and in=evaluation). The function=of approval (ADP compilation, allocation=of funds, recommendation=for approval) is an important=activity of the department. =
2.1 Interview FindingsWe began=the interviews with a brief=summary of the size and=scale of the traffic congestion=problem and why we think traffic=congestion and its mitigation=deserves serious=consideration. We followed the=introduction with seven questions=relating to my research findings and traffic=congestion mitigation=strategies.

What strategies=is your organization=using or recommending=to=combat=traffic congestion in Peshawar? Can you=rank these strategies in=order of most=effective to least effective? Are there any drawbacks=to any of these=strategies?
Interview Findings Questions Traffic Department PDA P;D
1. Strategies used and their effectiveness/ drawbacks PTD not directly involved=in
Implementing mitigation=strategies. Instead,=Regional Transportation Planning Agencies=(e.g., P;D), implement=strategies in compliance with PTD
guidelines.=These strategies=are=then assessed every 4-5 year using=established performance measures Ramp=metering, tolling, and increasing=the cost of driving (e.g., pricing parking, increasing gasoline=tax)=as most effective=in=reducing congestion. Operational=Strategies such
as interchange improvements
and auxiliary=lanes are cost
effective tools=for mitigation
Of traffic=congestion.

Traffic Study3.1 Traffic surveysWe conducted=traffic surveys in month=of November 2015 through questionnaire=and interviews=with the public and=traffic police on different=points on university road from Board Bazaar to=Aman Chowk , these surveys=were compared with=the previous surveys and also the previous=work, we conducted this survey=under supervision =of Engr. Sher Ali sb , before going into=the field to carry out the=traffic survey, a comprehensive=plan was prepared to program=and conduct the survey=in a proper manner as per=requirement of the project. The scheduling,=format and procedure=of survey were discussed in=detail with the traffic survey team to explain=the various aspects.

3.2 Survey of the existing bus stations/Stop IdentificationsAfter a detail survey of the university=road from Board Bazar to Aman=Chowk we find out that there are three=types of bus stops, which are, major=bus stops, small bus-stop and stops where buses takes=stop but actually there is no stop=for buses.

There locations=on university road are as bellow.

3.2.1 Major Bus StopsBoard Bazaar on=both side, University Gate, Arbab=Road on both side, Tanbwano Chowk Only on left side Tehkal Chowk=only on right side, Defence Chowk=only on left side,
3.2.2 Minor Bus StopsIslamia=College Gate 2, Shaheen Town, Rahat Abad=Road Chowk, Tanbwano=Chowk right Side=only, Abdara Road on=right side only, Nasar Abad.

3.2.3 No Actual Bus Stop but Buses use it a StopBISE Peshawar, KCD=Gate, Town Thana Stop, Gul Hajji=Plaza both Site Stop,Tehkal Left site stop, KFC=Stop, Jahangir Abad, University=Town Stop, Sherpawo=Stop, Islamia College Gate=1 Stop on right side.

3.3 Traffic Volume countThe manual=classified counts were conducted=at Tehkal-Payan=intersection for (05) five through turning=movements on 23 to 27 November 2015.traffic=counts starts at 8.am in the morning=and continuously=perform for next 10 hours till 6.pm.

Table: Traffic counts movements
Movement Description
Movement-1 Through traffic movement from Board Bazar to Aman Chowk
Movement-2 Through traffic movement from Aman chowk to Board Bazar
Movement-3 Straight traffic movement from Aman chowk to AbdaraRoadMovement-4 Straight traffic movement from Abdara road to SiffatGhayyur-Chowk
Movement-5 Turning Traffic at Tehkal-Payan stop towards shama chowk
Tehkal Payan (Traffic Movement from Abdara to Aman Chowk) November 2015

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2

Figure 3
3.4 Data Collection Format
Data collection format for the project was developed keeping in view the project requirements. The following classifications of vehicles were used for the project as given below.

Table B summary of vehicles categories
Vehicle Type Vehicle Category
Vehicle type-1 wagons/coaches
Vehicle type-2 Buses
Vehicle type-3 Taxis/private cars
3.4.1 Manual counting method
a) Purpose and use
For a Varity of reason, most traffic=counts are conducted=manually. A principle=reason is
Time, studies=conducted for a duration=of less than 8 -10 hours do=not justify the effort ,Required=to set up automated counting=equipment, unless such equipment=is already
Permanently=installed at the site. Many=counts are taken for a single=peak period of 2-3
Hours at the location=of interest. A second reason=is that certain types=of information are
More easily=and accurately obtained=using manually=techniques. This include=such
Information=as vehicle=classification, turn=movement, pedestrian count, and vehicle
Occupancy .while=there are detectors=which estimate vehicle=type based upon the time, it
Takes=a vehicle to cross the=detector, these cannot differentiate=functional classification
Such as taxis=vs. passenger car or bus vs. single unit=truck.

3.4.2 Use of Hand Counter
A tally counter=is usually made of metal=and is circular=in shape. Part of the circle is flattened out and contains=a piece of clear plastic. Inside the=counter are a number of rings with the numbers=from 0 to 9 in descending=order going clockwise. Most counters=have four such=rings, allowing the user to=count up to 9999. A metal ring=may be attached to aid in holding=the counter, and usually half the=ring is bent to fit flush=with the counter.

The main=application of tally counters=is as people counters. At concerts, stadiums, etc., a person=will stand by the door with a tally=counter recording the number=of people that enter. At amusement=parks, the rides can=only hold a certain=number of people, so the operator=may use a tally counter to keep track=of the number of people,=who get on the ride. They are also used=for traffic analysis, scientific=research, counting inventory=and on industrial=lines as well.

3.4.3 Average daily traffic or ADT
Average daily=traffic or ADT, and sometimes=also mean daily traffic, is the average number of vehicles two-way passing=a specific point in a=24-hour period, normally=measured throughout=a year. ADT is not as highly referred=to as the engineering=standard of AADT which is the standard=measurement for vehicle=traffic load on a section=of road, and the basis for most decisions=regarding transport planning, or to the environmental=hazards of pollution=related to road=transport.

Commercial vehicles 09:00 to 10:00 11:00 to 12:00 01:00 to 02:00 02:00 to 03:00 03:00 to 04:00 04:00 to 05:00 05:00 to 06:00
Wagons/coaches 295 214 197 215 185 196 243
Buses 215 165 147 186 165 173 183
Taxis/Private Cars 3245 3121 3345 3423 3024 2978 3056
Average daily traffic can be calculated as:
ADT = Total no of counted vehicles / total no of counting hours
ADT= (24971)/7 = 3568 approximately.

Conclusion4.1 ProblemsPeshawar city is=one of the most polluted and=congested city of the=country as far as traffic is=concerned. Encroachment=in busy markets and huge=traffic on roads causing congestion, which has made=life miserable for drivers=and for people, who=even could not find way to pass=while walking in different=areas. Vehicular movement=at snail’s pace has become=a routine matter=in Peshawar and once a motorist=enters city area during business hours=could not get out in less than=an hour. The most sufferers=are the drivers and the pedestrians=from the present=state of traffic congestion=and=encroachment, especially women=and children, who could not find=way to walk because of=congestion, immature driving habits=and occupation of the footpaths=by the shopkeepers=and venders. A visit to different congested=areas like Peshawar=University U Turn, Aman=Chowk, may help realize the difficulties=being faced by pedestrians=and drivers of different=vehicles.

Customers=park their vehicles near their=shops because of lack=of car parks and security. Besides this, almost all=shopping malls, restaurants,=wedding halls and=establishments on the city’s road do=not have car parks=and their=customers are used to park vehicles along the road side. All=these things contribute=in increasing=traffic problems specially congestion. The appalling=thing is that most of the=newly developed building, offices, restaurants,=and trade centers on=Jamrud road, after the year 2000, even do=not have car parks=which are clear violation=of the Peshawar Development=Authority building By-law rules and which=raises few question on Peshawar=Development Authority=and on the provincial=government as well.

Major Problem IdentifiedIllegal=use of Main Road for=Parking.
Due to lake of off street=parking people park their vehicles=on road side causing serious=congestion.

Figure 4
4.3 Encroachment
One of the most challenging=issues in our province=is the encroachment.=In the picture shown Cart creating=obstruction in the traffic=flow.And picture also indicates=that the venders have=placed their wheel=carts/ hand carts on footpath, allowing=no room for pedestrian to pass. Therefore=pedestrian are forced=to walk on road instead=of footpath usually cause=accidents and traffic=blockage.

Figure 5
Shortage of off-street parking=which means people=park on the services=roads and so increase=congestion near=Tehkal Bala.
In Arbab road and=Tehkal Bala the Motor=bargain park their vehicles on Road side which=make serious=problem of congestion.

Figure 6a Illegal used of access road.

Figure 6b Illegal used of access road.

From Board Bazar to Aman Chowk there=is no Existing Proper lane=Mark Presents at maximum=section on the road
Due to absences=of proper lane marking=vehicles not maintain=their flow on proper lane and cross=lane interrupted which=cause accident also stop=vehicles and cause serious=traffic=congestion .

Figure 7a No proper lane marking

Figure 7b No proper lane marking
Absence of Pedestrian=crossing (Zebra Crossing), least no of=Overhead bridges and Underpasses=near Board Bazar
Pedestrian=cross road and some time highe speed=vehicles hit the=Pedestrian, it aslo a serious=isssue.

Figure 8 Absences of Pedestrian crossNon mountable=barrier in middle of road in=Tehkal Payan which may=enhance traffic congestion.

Figure 9
Figure shows the total=number of commercial=and private vehicles=registered with the excise=department of Peshawar for the year=2006 to 2013. The table=depicts that the growth of private vehicles is much higher than the commercial vehicles (23.85=%), which account 228.98=% from 2006=to 2013. The great number of=private vehicles is considered=the main cause of congestion=in the city.

Figure 10
4.4 3-Esa) Engineeringb) Educationc) EnforcementDue to fast going=strength of vehicles the road in the=Peshawar have been over burden and the free flow of traffic is=becoming “hard=nut to=crack” the main=problem in this way is the poor=engineering and under=construction roads..Public education regarding=the Traffic rule is a=major problem where=as maximum No. of road user is illiterate=and un aware about the traffic rule=and regulations.

Excess of U-turns:
Total number=of U-turns from phase three=chowk upto Shama Chowk is 17, many of them are temporary=closed and which causing traffic=congestion on road some of the U-turns , these U-turns cause the slowdown=and the interchange=of vehicular lanes so it cause the rough flow of traffic=which becomes the reason of traffic=congestion.

Recommendation
The city lacks proper traffic=planning and management=and therefore, 90=% of the respondents=are not satisfied=with the present traffic=management. In addition=to private=vehicles / cars, the check=posts and blockages erected by=security personnel on different location=cause serious congestion, which is counterproductive=in terms of time, extra=fuel/gas charges, and hence the greater=air emissions and its psychological=and health=impacts. It is revealed that the private=cars owners and drivers=of public transport spend=about PKR 150-200 on extra fuel/gas consumption=due to slow movement / traffic jams=in reaching their=destination, hence restricting=their movement and their=social activities. To overcome=various factors causing traffic=problems, congestion=and the related environmental=and social problems in=Peshawar, the following=measures are suggested=for early=implementation;
5.1 Traffic Management and Awareness• All government departments=related to the transport,=sector must be under one window
for their better=coordination and=management.
• To relieve=congestion, obstacles /road blockages=should be removed=and flyovers / underpasses be constructed=at few locations like Tehkal=bus stop to Gora Qabrastan. .
• The traffic management=could improve by giving sensitization=trainings to traffic police and their salaries=and allowances=be enhanced to their=satisfaction.
• The drivers of public=transport should be given proper=education and also encourage People to obey the traffic=rules.
• To avoid=ribbon development, the=government should ban=further hotels, trade centers, shopping=plazas, housing schemes and wedding=halls along main highways=and roads in the city.
• The constructing=of flyovers, under passes and=roads expansion should be based
on comprehensive=surveys in the planning=process for transport=sector in the city.
• Car parking must be ensured=as basic condition for approval=of constructions. Especially commercial=centers along=the roads. 5.2 Discouraging Private Cars•To reduce the fastest=ever traffic growth, the use of private=cars should be
Discouraged=through the introduction=of decent public=transport, including circular rail
And transit transport=in the city. The government=should ban car schemes by
Different commercial=banks and increase import=duty on private=vehicles.
5.3 Future planning/Suggestion:To introduce=some new plan for the free flow=of traffic and effective=enforcement, in this endure=following steps has to be taken=in future
Maintenance=of all traffic=signals
Removal of engineering=faults in coordination=with PDA and local government
One way=city plan=for internal traffic
Special action against=encroachment within=the city
Public education=and campaign through print and=electric media
Restoration of all necessary=roads infrastructure
Community=policy culture in order to create awareness=among public regarding traffic rule and=regulation
Regular briefing=classes for all traffic=official regarding=management, public dealing, enforcement, leadership=and personality development.

Change in the curriculum=of traffic training school in=order to ensure the best cadre and utilize=them for effective=enforcement.

Traffic signal=should be installed in the busiest=point of Peshawar the=expenditure for these traffic,=signal with time=based light changing and vehicle=traffic sensor should be borne=by the concern authority i.e. district=government.

There should=be demarcated parking=areas as no parking facility=is available in existing shopping=plaza in Peshawar. Unfortunately=parking place in the shopping plazas are illegally=being used for commercial,=use and Visitor Park their=vehicle on road.

Strict enforcement=of traffic laws shall be observed=by all, and no threats=by any transport shall be=entertained=in this regard without the approval=of public transport committee.5.4 Decreasing Congestion by Increasing Public Transit RidershipTraffic congestion=is no fun for anyone, but it’s deadly=for public transport. When buses and trams=are stuck in traffic jams they=fall behind schedule=and, because this means=that more people will be waiting=at the next stops, they fall even=further behind=schedule leading to bunching=and compounding delays. Bunched=buses and delays=make public transport unattractive=for customers and increase=operational costs, so congestion=impacts on public transport=must be eliminated=whenever possible.

Three techniques=for reducing the impact of traffic=congestion on public=transports are:
Provide exclusive=lanes for public=transport;
Use regulations and traffic=engineering to control=traffic;
Use innovative=ideas to reduce traffic=impacts on public=transport.

APPENDIX
Transport=Department: Peshawar=Govt. of KPK
Peshawar Development=Authority (PDA):
Communication & Works=Department (C&W):
12 Newman=and=Ken worthy (1989), Small (1985), Downs (1992), Tong
And Wong. (1997), Burchell=(1998)
Ahmad, Q.I., Lu, H. and Ye, S., (2008), “Urban=Transportation and
Equity: A case study=of Beijing and Karachi”, Transportation=Research
Part A: Policy and=Practice 42(1), pp 125–139.
Daily=Peninsula, (2010), 28000 Rickshaws=Cause Chaos On Peshawar
Roads.=(n.d.).
www.archive.thepeninsulaqatar.com (accessed 7 September, 2011).

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