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Trends and statistics

Trends and statistics (1995) According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: In the developing world, women grow up to 80 per cent of all food produced, but rarely hold the title to the land they cultivate. Worldwide, they constitute one third of the wage-labor force. Much of their work, however, is unpaid, among a wide range of other activities. Women also dominate the informal sector of the economy – and this work is not usually reflected in economic statistics. If global calculations of the gross domestic product included household work, the amount would increase by 25 per cent and would be generally greater than that of men,Saukat Azim (1997) in his book “Muslim women Emerging Identity” described that Muslims in Mangalore, states purdah is one impediments for the progress and all – round development of Muslim women. Due to purdah system many Muslim women’s do not allow the grown- up girls to go out. It also seriously affecting them in their education and taking up of employment but there are many changes in the practice of purdah system now a days the system was disappearing. Practice of wearing burka is not at all found, today many women go out without wearing burka and the autonomy of Muslim women in social, economic and cultural activities have improved considerably.Sylvia Walby (1997) in her book “Gender transformation” mentioned that understandable and subtle investigation, she is one of the world’s leading authorities on gender shows how undoubted increases in opportunity for women in Europe and America have been accompanied by new forms of inequality. Individual chapters look at the phenomenon of flexible work and its influence on the total labour market, at gender politics and social theory, at the gendering of citizenship and nationhood and at gender in the context of European integration. Fundamental transformations of gender relations in the contemporary Western world are affecting the economy and all forms of social relations. The driving forces behind these changes are the increase in women’s education and paid employment and new forms of political representation of women’s interests. These changes have implications not only for women’s positions in wider society, in all their diversity, but also for the overall economy and polity. .Ahuja Ram (1998) in his book “violence against women” where he illustrated the rise in violence against women, efforts to answer questions regarding the nature and cause for violence against women. If any theoretical analysis could be offered explaining the etiology of violence and effectiveness of women’s groups in talking issues of sexual exploitation and harassment of women. These and other issues are critically examined from sociological perspective. It also deals with the issue of trauma faced by victims of violence as they seek acceptance in the hostile environment. This book also offers suggestions regarding treatment of such issues though preventive measures, redefining patriarchal norms, developing supports for victims with in the family and through women s organization etc., thus providing a balance between practical and theoretical issues.Ahmad Jawad (1998) in his “the rights of women in Islam” explained that Islam importance both that women differ from men and that they are equal to men. He further writes that in Quran and in Hadith literature, there are various statements concerning women in particular which makes clear pronouncement in favor of equal rights for both man and woman, In Islam women has given highest place, both men and women are equal in the eyes of Islam neither the inferiority of any one nor is superiority of anybody written down for eternity.Roy y kalpana (1999) in her three volume book” women and their environment” has given a detailed analysis of women’s environment particularly in India context; in the past and present. She has highlighted important issues about women in terms of educational political and social status of women .she has also talked about crime against women in details within and outside the family. The book is detailed analysis of Indian women’s transformation and change after they come out of home to work outside for earnings. Roy kalpana,s another book has also emphasize that positive change in w2omens life has been exaggerated as women is still in the same environment. In her words many women who briefly attend a school or emerged from “purdah” to attend a mixed function returned to the households where they continued to live in the more traditional fashion. More over the three volumes of her book discusse4sa in detail about women’s role in nature and society also contribution of higher education, politics, and women’s organizations to words bringing change in women’s environment

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