US History A
Sung Shin Cho ([email protected])
Unit8 Assignment3 – Ramifications of the Treaty of Versailles
Directions: Please answer each question below in a detailed paragraph (a paragraph is 5-7 sentences)
What were some of the main provisions of the treaty? Who benefited from this treaty and why?
Established League of Nations 1
All responsibility for the war lies with allies, including the Weimar Republic, and will deliver 800 war criminals, including emperor and military key personnel.
Abandon all colonies of Germany (African colonies divided by Britain, France and Belgium)
Transfer Alsace-Lorraine to France
Cede Eupen-Malmedy to Belgium
Important areas in eastern Germany belong to the new Polish government.
A part of northern Germany becomes a territory of Denmark
The entire area of ??the Rhine River and the 60 km east of the Rhine are demilitarizedTo repay the ‘132 billion mark’ on a ‘gold’ basis within 20 years
The size of the army is limited to 100,000, and drafting is prohibited.
Weimar repatriates 5,000 cannons and 25,000 airplanes.
Prohibit possession of the latest weapons, including tanks and fighters (including all aviation power).
The naval force is limited to 15,000, the warship is limited to six light cruisers, 12 destroyers, and six warships with a displacement of 10,000 tons or less. Submarines are also banned.
Abolition of military school, the abolition of staff headquarters
Never reunite with Austrian or German-speaking countries.
One of the countries that has benefited from the treaty of Versailles was France. Alsace-Lorraine was back in France. The western part of Germany was demilitarized. Austro-Hungarian Empires were divided. France also got financial supports. The United States was also one of the countries that had seen profits. The huge amount by the Weimar Republic has been rewarded to the United States. This had led the United States to become grown rapidly as the world’s largest economy. In addition, the voice of the United States to the international community has become stronger.
Was the treaty was accepted or viewed favorably by all nations involved? How did the Treaty of Versailles ultimately cause World War II?
After the end of World War I, the victorious powers, especially the Third Republic of France, made a treaty to the defeated Weimar Republic. The treaty was made for peace, but in fact, it caused to begin World War II. Originally, the damages of the Treaty of Versailles were damages for the residents of Belgium and France in the battlefields. France, however, said it would “compensate for the military losses of the Allied Forces,” which increased to the amount of $ 33 billion 1. This led to economic and political instability in Germany. Especially, economic instability eventually led Hitler to take power in Germany and led to World War II.
Each country showed the mixed reactions to the treaty. One interpreted the crying child as the Weimar Republic and criticized the harsh Treaty of Versailles. The other criticized the modest Treaty of Versailles, which would lead to a new war in the future.
France wanted to get back the Alsace-Lorraine area from Germany in order to secure the safety from Germany. However, there was no guarantee of security to the degree that France wanted. When Germany simply invaded France, the United States and Britain would compromise to support France, but this also failed to be ratified in the United States. After the treaty, the general of the French Army, Ferdinand Foch, was so disappointed and even said that “this is not peace. It is an armistice for 20 years.” 2
The United States had developed into a great economic power, but President Wilson was the first to debate the idea of creating the League of Nations. However, the US Senate rejected the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. This prevented from joining in the League of Nations.
There were complaints that the amount to be paid by Germany through the Treaty of Versailles was too big. In particular, with the Great Depression, Germany was no longer able to pay reparations and became financial catastrophe. Hence, the Nazis and Adolf Hitler emerged and became ruled. Eventually, Hitler destroyed the Treaty of Versailles in 1935 and caused World War II in 1939 3.
1 The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Treaty of Versailles 1919, Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Versailles-1919, last accessed on Aug. 02, 2018.
2 Paul Reynaud, Memoires, vol. 2, p. 457, 1963.
3 History.com Staff, Treaty of Versailles, http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/treaty-of-versailles, last accessed on Aug. 02, 2018.
***Cite specific examples from the reading and include in-text citations for any sources used in your response.